Archive for February 2016

Nice Signing A Commercial Lease photos

Check out these Signing a Commercial Lease images:

29a – Russell Residence – 2263 S Hobart Blvd – Official Address (E)
Signing a Commercial Lease
Image by Kansas Sebastian
West Adams Heights

“Nowadays we scarcely notice the high stone gates which mark the entrances on Hobart, Harvard, and Oxford streets, south of Washington Boulevard. For one thing, the traffic is too heavy, too swift; and then, again, the gates have been obscured by intrusions of shops and stores. At the base of the stone pillars appears the inscription “West Adams Heights.” There was a time when these entranceways were formidable and haughty, for they marked the ways to one of the first elite residential areas in Los Angeles. . . In the unplanned early-day chaos of Los Angeles, West Adams Heights was obviously something very special, an island in an ocean of bungalows—approachable, but withdrawn and reclusive—one of the few surviving examples of planned urban elegance of the turn of the century.”

– Carey McWilliams, “The Evolution of Sugar Hill,” Script, March, 1949: 30.

Today West Adams Heights is still obviously something special. The past sixty years, however, have not been kind. In 1963 the Santa Monica Freeway cut through the heart of West Adams Heights, dividing the neighborhood, obscuring its continuity. In the 1970’s the city paved over the red brick streets and removed the ornate street lighting. After the neighborhood’s zoning was changed to a higher density, overzealous developers claimed several mansions for apartment buildings. Despite these challenges, however, “The Heights,” as the area was once known, has managed to regain some of its former elegance.

The West Adams Heights tract was laid out in 1902, in what was then a wheat field on the western edge of town. Although the freeway now creates an artificial barrier, the original neighborhood boundaries were Adams Boulevard, La Salle Ave, Washington Boulevard, and Western Avenue. Costly improvements were integrated into the development, such as 75-food wide boulevards (which were some of the first contoured streets not to follow the city grid), lots elevated from the sidewalk, ornate street lighting, and large granite monuments with red-brass electroliers at the entrance to every street. These upgrades increased the lot values, which helped ensure the tract would be an enclave for the elite.

One early real estate ad characterized the neighborhood stating: “West Adams Heights needs no introduction to the public: it is already recognized as being far superior to any other tract. Its high and slightly location, its beautiful view of the city and mountains make t a property unequaled by any other in the city.”

The early residents’ were required to sign a detailed restrictive covenant. This hand-written document required property owners to build a “first-class residence,” of at least two stories, costing no less than two-thousand dollars (at a time when a respectable home could be built for a quarter of that amount, including the land), and built no less than thirty-five feet from the property’s primary boundary. Common in early twentieth century, another clause excluded residents from selling or leasing their properties to non-Caucasians.

By the mid 1930’s, however, most of the restrictions had expired. Between 1938 and 1945 many prominent African-Americans began to make “The Heights” their home. According to Carey McWilliams, West Adams Heights became known “Far and wide as the famous Sugar Hill section of Los Angeles,” and enjoyed a clear preeminence over Washington’s smart Le Droit Park, St. Louis’s Enright Street, West Philadelphia, Chicago’s Westchester, and Harlem’s fabulous Sugar Hill.

West Adams Heights, now also known as Sugar Hill, played a major role in the Civil Rights movement in Los Angeles. In 1938 Norman Houston, president of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, and an African-American, purchased a home at 2211 South Hobart Boulevard. Legal Action from eight homeowners quickly ensued. During that period, other prominent African-Americans began to make Sugar Hill their home – including actress Hattie McDaniels, dentists John and Vada Summerville, actress Louise Beavers, band leader Johnny Otis, and performers Pearl Baily and Ethel Waters, and many more. On December 6, 1945, the “Sugar Hill Cases” were heard before Judge Thurmond Clark, in LA Superior Court. He made history by become the first judge in America to use the 14th Amendment to disallow the enforcement of covenant race restrictions. The Los Angeles Sentinel quoted Judge Clark: “This court is of the opinion that it is time that [African-Americans] are accorded, without reservations and evasions, the full rights guaranteed them under the 14th Amendment.” Gradually, over the last century people of nearly ever background have made historic West Adams their home.

The northern end of West Adams Heights is now protected as part of the Harvard Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone (HPOZ). The Historic West Adams area of Los Angeles (which includes West Adams Heights) boasts the highest concentration of turn-of-the-century homes west of the Mississippi, as well as the highest concentration of National Historic Landmarks, National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Districts, State Historic Landmarks, Los Angeles Cultural-Historic Monuments, and Historic Preservation Overlay Zones in the city. The entirety of West Adams Heights should be nominated as a National Register Historic District, for the quality of homes, the prominence of the architects, notoriety of the people who lived in the neighborhood, and the role it played in civil rights.

Perhaps a quote adapted from a fireplace mantle in the Frederick Rindge mansion best symbolizes the optimism which exists in West Adams: “California Shall be Ours as Long as the Stars Remain.”

19 – James G & Rose Ganahl Donovan Residence – 2179 W 20th St, Moved from 2202 S Western Ave – 1903 – Robert Brown Young

James Donovan began as an apprentice to a watch maker in Aurora, IL, working his way up to Lead Mechanic and an eventual partner in the company, before branching into jewelry on his own. Accompanied by his sister in 1894 he came to Los Angeles for a month’s long vacation. At the end he decided to stay one more week – then three more months – and then founded to stay. He began Donovan & Seaman’s Co on Spring St, near Temple, when it was the heart of the LA’s shopping district. He later moved the store to 3rd & Spring St, then 7th & Broadway. When he built his residence, he chose a prominent location, placing it directly in front of the Berkeley Square gates, on the southeast corner of Western Ave and 22nd St. The home was designed by R B Young in a Transitional Victorian/Craftsman style, leaning more toward the Victorian. Young was a prolific architect in Los Angeles, designing many homes and office buildings, including the Vickery-Brunswig Building, San Fernando Building and Clifton’s Brookdale. The house was moved to its present location in 1929 as Western Ave transitioned to a commercial thoroughfare and the street was widened.

20 – Paul W Hoffmann Residence – 1926 S Western Ave – 1904

Charles Albert Rockwell was a partner in the building firm Martin & Rockwell, and through his company built several houses in West Adams Heights, on Western Avenue, including: 1926, 1962 and 2020 S Western Ave. He himself lived at 1962 S Western Ave before moving down the street to 2020 S Western Ave. This Transitional Craftsman/Victorian house he sold to Paul Hoffmann, dealing in loans and real estate. While most of the houses along the commercial corridors have vanished, this house and a few others, have managed to survive mostly intact.

21 – Ellis Doughl and Alphonso Barmann Residence – 1934 S Western Ave – 1905

A 1905 property permit to the building firm Pool & Jones suggests this is one of the few properties in West Adams Heights built on spec (speculation of a perspective buyer). The home was purchased by Ellis Doughl – who may or may not have lived on the property. In 1911 Newton H Foster, a junior clerk for the Santa Fe, appears to be renting the property, and in 1912 the property is sold to F Barmann for ,500. The 1915 City Directory shows Alphonso (Gen Contr), Herbert (Mach), Natalie (Tchr) and Walter (Mach) Barmann at the property. They had moved from their house on the other side of the Heights at 2047 La Salle Ave. Alphanso Barmann was given the general contract for construction of the 10 story Higgins Building in 1909. The house is Transitional Craftsman/Victorian with strong Colonial influences.

22 – Hans B & Ethyleen Nielsen Residence – 2010 S Western Ave – 1911

Built in the “Elizabethan Style” common at the time, this large Transitional Craftsman/Victorian incorporates half timbering and pebble-dash stucco into the design. It appears to have been built for Hans B and Ethyleen Nielsen.

23 – The Santa Monica Freeway – 21st to 22nd Streets – Originally called the Olympic Freeway – 1964

Like a river cutting through the heart of West Adams Heights, the Olympic Freeway as it was first called claimed approximately one-third of the homes, and some of the most significant. The entire block between 21st and 22nd Streets, on Western, Harvard, Hobart and LaSalle were demolished for the project. The prestigious “Harvard Circle” part of West Adams Heights was completely wiped off the map, with only vague and cryptic references left in newspapers and books. This canyon creates a permanent barrier in a once cohesive neighborhood. Plans for the Olympic Freeway were laid out in the 1947, coincidentally occurring a year after racial covenants were determined to be illegal and African-Americans gained the rights to live in the neighborhood. For almost 20 years, until the freeway’s completion in 1964, black leaders called on the city and the State of California to move the path of the freeway to Washington, Venice or Pico, to spare West Adams Heights, or Sugar Hill as it was becoming known. However, the commission overseeing the project ignored them. Even Mayor Bowron participated in efforts to spare Berkeley Square and West Adams Heights, but members of the commission were unmoved. In the early 1960’s the construction equipment arrived, the houses were removed, and one of LA’s most prestigious enclaves was divided.

24 – Kate A Kelley Residence – 2205 S Hobart Blvd – 1905 – Sumner P Hunt and Arthur Wesley Eager

The architecture team of Hunt & Eager designed this home for Kate A Kelley, the widow of John Kelley. She lived there with her sister Jennie MacKay. By 1915 the house was owned by Abram C Denman, Jr., th vice president and general manager of the Southern California Iron and Steele Company. As a boarding house run by the Agape Mission, the house has fallen on hard times, with stucco, an enclosed porch and aluminum windows. But with some time, money and love, the house could be restored.

25 – John & Gertrude D Kahn and Norman O & Edythe Houston Residence – 2211 S Hobart Blvd – 1911 – Milwaukee Building Company

The Kahn-Houston Residence is arguably one of the most important houses in West Adams Heights. It deserves to be a National Register of Historic places. Unfortunately, at this time (2014) its fate is uncertain. The Agape Mission, which has run an illegal boarding house from the property and from 2205 S Hobart, has recently been closed and both properties appear to be in receivership. This house is so important to the historic fabric of the community because it was the home of Norman O Houston, President of the Golden State Mutual – an insurance company for black Americans who could not obtain insurance from white-owned companies at an affordable price. See the Wikipedia article: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_O._Houston In 1938 Houston (then Vice-President) purchased the home. Wealthy white owners of the neighborhood prevented him from living in his home by re-establishing the “West Adams Heights Improvement Association,” and attempting to codify the rule preventing non-Caucasians from owning or renting property. In 1945 Norman Houston and the other black property owners won the right in court to legally live in the neighborhood. The house had been originally built for John Kahn, an early pioneer to Los Angeles who first came to Oakland, CA, around 1889 with his brother and opened a dry goods store. John moved to Los Angeles 3 years later and opened a large store in the ground floor of the Nadeau Hotel at 1st & Spring. Around 1897 he sold the enterprise and in 1899 incorporated with Jakob Beck to form Kahn-Beck, manufacturing food stuff, including: “All kinds of candy, macaroni and pastas of all kinds.” The company then grew into one of the largest biscuit making companies as the Kahn-Beck Cracker Company, or Kahn Beck Biscuit Company, and Angelus Biscuit Company. John Kahn passed in 1919. The house built in 1911 by the Milwaukee Building Company is in an avant-garde Spanish/Prairie style.

26 – James D & May C Smith and Louise Beavers-Moore & LeRoy C Moore Residence – 2219 S Hobart Blvd – 1904 – Frank M Tyler

For his first home in West Adams Heights, pioneer real estate developer Richard D Richards commissioned Frank M Tyler to build a 16-room English-styled mansion in 1904. Richards sold the property to James D Smith two years later, moving to another Tyler mansion at 2237 S Hobart Blvd and then to 2208 S Western Ave, where the Richards family lived until 1925. James Smith was proprietor of the James Smith & Co, a clothing store of the finest “ready-made” Franklin Brand clothing for men, established in 1902. For years the company operated from the Bryson Block, before relocating to the more fashionable Broadway. In the early 1940’s Louise Beavers joined Norman Houston (2211 S Hobart Ave) and Hattie McDaniel (2203 S Harvard Blvd) in the Heights. Louise Beavers was a talented actress, acclaimed for her role in Imitation of Life as Delilah. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Beavers Louise was married to her second husband, LeRoy C Moore in 1952. LeRoy was a well-known interior decorator. Together the two lived at this house until Louise’s death in October, 1962, and LeRoy’s death four months later in February, 1963. At first glass the Smith-Beavers Residence appears to be completely remodeled, but comparing it to original renderings little has changed. The front left dormer is missing and at some point someone thought it would be a good idea to cover the house in Sears siding (the original siding is probably underneath). But other than having been divided, the house’s integrity remains intact.

27 – Ellen H (Mrs. Melville Morton) Johnston and Curtis & Ellen Williams Residence (Demolished) – 2237 S Hobart Blvd – 1906 – Frank M Tyler

The second residence in West Adams Heights built for Richard D and Cynthia J Richards, in 1906, has been replaced with a 1950’s apartment building. The first Richards home was located at 2219 S Hobart Blvd (the Smith-Beavers Residence). They lived at this house less than two years before relocating to 2208 S Western Ave, where the couple lived out their lives. This home was sold to Ellen H Johnston (Mrs Melville Morton). Melville Morton Johnston may have died April 3, 1892. If I’ve researched the correct person, he was originally from Clifton, Stanton Island, New York. (I mean, how many men named Melville Morton Johnston can there be? Right?) In 1911 Mrs. Johnson sold the house to Curtis Williams. Curtis died at the home in 1959, at the age of 89. Curtis Williams was a pioneering lumberman who came to Los Angeles in 1895. He was born in Oakland and reared in San Diego. He was an early member of the Los Angeles Country Club, the Jonathan Club, and University Club. The house was a rustic Transitional Victorian/Craftsman, having both elements, designed by Frank M. Tyler. It was a perfectly balanced house, whose presence looks more like it would have been designed by John Austin.

28 – Benjamin Johnson Residence – 2241 S Hobart Blvd – 1909 – G A Howard, Jr.

In 1909 Benjamin Johnson commissioned G A Howard to build this charming Transitional Craftsman/Victorian in an English Style. The cost in 1909 was a mere ,000. As president of the Los Angeles Public Market Co (a company owned by Pacific Electric), he could well afford the cost – as well as a domestic, cook and chauffeur. What he could not afford, however, was a scandal involving his under-aged rebel daughter Estelle. In 1914, on a return trip from finishing school in Washington, DC, after a brief visit to her grandfather in Chicago. For eluded reasons, she was hastily married to Mr. Terrance Ryan. To employ his new son-in-law, Mr. Johnson purchased a produce company and gave Mr. Ryan a position and a promise of a bungalow. This appears not to have been enough, and the Johnsons were forced to petition the courts for the divorce of their daughter and Mr. Ryan on grounds he could not provide. The Johnsons must have been scandalized when the entire affair was laid out in the Los Angeles Times society pages.

29 – John Newton & Annie Berdella Evans Russell Jr. Residence – 2263 S Hobart Blvd – 1906

Above the portico of this residence is the address “2249” S Hobart Blvd, however its legal address (according to the tax assessor’s maps) is actually 2263 S Hobart. The confusion is understandable. The property sits on three lots from what would have been 2249 (where the house actually sits) to the actual address of 2263 (which is the furthest lot south from the house). At this time the architect is unknown, but shows the adept hand of someone like Robert D. Farquar, who designed the John and Dora Haynes mansion on Figueroa in a similar style (demolished), or B. Cooper Corbett, responsible for the magnificent Denker Mansion on Adams Blvd. The house is an Italian Villa, in a Florentine style, years before the practice of designing thematic houses became popular in Los Angeles. This was the home of John Newton Russell, Jr., an insurance man. He was raised mostly in Waco, TX, before moving to Los Angeles with his father, also in the insurance business. Russell ran the Colorado branches of the Frederick Rindge’s Conservative Life Company, before the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. When the company was absorbed into Pacific Mutual, and moved to Los Angeles, Russell was recalled from Colorado to run the “Home Office.” Mr. Russell continued his success in the insurance industry, just as his wife enjoyed great social success. In 1942, their son, John Henry Russell, established the John Newton Russell Memorial Award, as a tribute to his father and mentor, recognizing the accomplishments and contributions of made by an individual in the insurance industry. This is the highest honor awarded by the National Association of Insurance and Financial Advisors (NAIFA), given each year. NAIFA is one of the nation’s oldest and largest associations representing professionals in the insurance and financial industries.

26b – Richards-Smith-Beavers Residence – 2219 S Hobart Blvd – Arhitect & Engineer 1905 (E)

Check out these Signing a Commercial Lease images:

26b – Richards-Smith-Beavers Residence – 2219 S Hobart Blvd – Arhitect & Engineer 1905 (E)
Signing a Commercial Lease
Image by Kansas Sebastian
West Adams Heights

“Nowadays we scarcely notice the high stone gates which mark the entrances on Hobart, Harvard, and Oxford streets, south of Washington Boulevard. For one thing, the traffic is too heavy, too swift; and then, again, the gates have been obscured by intrusions of shops and stores. At the base of the stone pillars appears the inscription “West Adams Heights.” There was a time when these entranceways were formidable and haughty, for they marked the ways to one of the first elite residential areas in Los Angeles. . . In the unplanned early-day chaos of Los Angeles, West Adams Heights was obviously something very special, an island in an ocean of bungalows—approachable, but withdrawn and reclusive—one of the few surviving examples of planned urban elegance of the turn of the century.”

– Carey McWilliams, “The Evolution of Sugar Hill,” Script, March, 1949: 30.

Today West Adams Heights is still obviously something special. The past sixty years, however, have not been kind. In 1963 the Santa Monica Freeway cut through the heart of West Adams Heights, dividing the neighborhood, obscuring its continuity. In the 1970’s the city paved over the red brick streets and removed the ornate street lighting. After the neighborhood’s zoning was changed to a higher density, overzealous developers claimed several mansions for apartment buildings. Despite these challenges, however, “The Heights,” as the area was once known, has managed to regain some of its former elegance.

The West Adams Heights tract was laid out in 1902, in what was then a wheat field on the western edge of town. Although the freeway now creates an artificial barrier, the original neighborhood boundaries were Adams Boulevard, La Salle Ave, Washington Boulevard, and Western Avenue. Costly improvements were integrated into the development, such as 75-food wide boulevards (which were some of the first contoured streets not to follow the city grid), lots elevated from the sidewalk, ornate street lighting, and large granite monuments with red-brass electroliers at the entrance to every street. These upgrades increased the lot values, which helped ensure the tract would be an enclave for the elite.

One early real estate ad characterized the neighborhood stating: “West Adams Heights needs no introduction to the public: it is already recognized as being far superior to any other tract. Its high and slightly location, its beautiful view of the city and mountains make t a property unequaled by any other in the city.”

The early residents’ were required to sign a detailed restrictive covenant. This hand-written document required property owners to build a “first-class residence,” of at least two stories, costing no less than two-thousand dollars (at a time when a respectable home could be built for a quarter of that amount, including the land), and built no less than thirty-five feet from the property’s primary boundary. Common in early twentieth century, another clause excluded residents from selling or leasing their properties to non-Caucasians.

By the mid 1930’s, however, most of the restrictions had expired. Between 1938 and 1945 many prominent African-Americans began to make “The Heights” their home. According to Carey McWilliams, West Adams Heights became known “Far and wide as the famous Sugar Hill section of Los Angeles,” and enjoyed a clear preeminence over Washington’s smart Le Droit Park, St. Louis’s Enright Street, West Philadelphia, Chicago’s Westchester, and Harlem’s fabulous Sugar Hill.

West Adams Heights, now also known as Sugar Hill, played a major role in the Civil Rights movement in Los Angeles. In 1938 Norman Houston, president of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, and an African-American, purchased a home at 2211 South Hobart Boulevard. Legal Action from eight homeowners quickly ensued. During that period, other prominent African-Americans began to make Sugar Hill their home – including actress Hattie McDaniels, dentists John and Vada Summerville, actress Louise Beavers, band leader Johnny Otis, and performers Pearl Baily and Ethel Waters, and many more. On December 6, 1945, the “Sugar Hill Cases” were heard before Judge Thurmond Clark, in LA Superior Court. He made history by become the first judge in America to use the 14th Amendment to disallow the enforcement of covenant race restrictions. The Los Angeles Sentinel quoted Judge Clark: “This court is of the opinion that it is time that [African-Americans] are accorded, without reservations and evasions, the full rights guaranteed them under the 14th Amendment.” Gradually, over the last century people of nearly ever background have made historic West Adams their home.

The northern end of West Adams Heights is now protected as part of the Harvard Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone (HPOZ). The Historic West Adams area of Los Angeles (which includes West Adams Heights) boasts the highest concentration of turn-of-the-century homes west of the Mississippi, as well as the highest concentration of National Historic Landmarks, National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Districts, State Historic Landmarks, Los Angeles Cultural-Historic Monuments, and Historic Preservation Overlay Zones in the city. The entirety of West Adams Heights should be nominated as a National Register Historic District, for the quality of homes, the prominence of the architects, notoriety of the people who lived in the neighborhood, and the role it played in civil rights.

Perhaps a quote adapted from a fireplace mantle in the Frederick Rindge mansion best symbolizes the optimism which exists in West Adams: “California Shall be Ours as Long as the Stars Remain.”

19 – James G & Rose Ganahl Donovan Residence – 2179 W 20th St, Moved from 2202 S Western Ave – 1903 – Robert Brown Young

James Donovan began as an apprentice to a watch maker in Aurora, IL, working his way up to Lead Mechanic and an eventual partner in the company, before branching into jewelry on his own. Accompanied by his sister in 1894 he came to Los Angeles for a month’s long vacation. At the end he decided to stay one more week – then three more months – and then founded to stay. He began Donovan & Seaman’s Co on Spring St, near Temple, when it was the heart of the LA’s shopping district. He later moved the store to 3rd & Spring St, then 7th & Broadway. When he built his residence, he chose a prominent location, placing it directly in front of the Berkeley Square gates, on the southeast corner of Western Ave and 22nd St. The home was designed by R B Young in a Transitional Victorian/Craftsman style, leaning more toward the Victorian. Young was a prolific architect in Los Angeles, designing many homes and office buildings, including the Vickery-Brunswig Building, San Fernando Building and Clifton’s Brookdale. The house was moved to its present location in 1929 as Western Ave transitioned to a commercial thoroughfare and the street was widened.

20 – Paul W Hoffmann Residence – 1926 S Western Ave – 1904

Charles Albert Rockwell was a partner in the building firm Martin & Rockwell, and through his company built several houses in West Adams Heights, on Western Avenue, including: 1926, 1962 and 2020 S Western Ave. He himself lived at 1962 S Western Ave before moving down the street to 2020 S Western Ave. This Transitional Craftsman/Victorian house he sold to Paul Hoffmann, dealing in loans and real estate. While most of the houses along the commercial corridors have vanished, this house and a few others, have managed to survive mostly intact.

21 – Ellis Doughl and Alphonso Barmann Residence – 1934 S Western Ave – 1905

A 1905 property permit to the building firm Pool & Jones suggests this is one of the few properties in West Adams Heights built on spec (speculation of a perspective buyer). The home was purchased by Ellis Doughl – who may or may not have lived on the property. In 1911 Newton H Foster, a junior clerk for the Santa Fe, appears to be renting the property, and in 1912 the property is sold to F Barmann for ,500. The 1915 City Directory shows Alphonso (Gen Contr), Herbert (Mach), Natalie (Tchr) and Walter (Mach) Barmann at the property. They had moved from their house on the other side of the Heights at 2047 La Salle Ave. Alphanso Barmann was given the general contract for construction of the 10 story Higgins Building in 1909. The house is Transitional Craftsman/Victorian with strong Colonial influences.

22 – Hans B & Ethyleen Nielsen Residence – 2010 S Western Ave – 1911

Built in the “Elizabethan Style” common at the time, this large Transitional Craftsman/Victorian incorporates half timbering and pebble-dash stucco into the design. It appears to have been built for Hans B and Ethyleen Nielsen.

23 – The Santa Monica Freeway – 21st to 22nd Streets – Originally called the Olympic Freeway – 1964

Like a river cutting through the heart of West Adams Heights, the Olympic Freeway as it was first called claimed approximately one-third of the homes, and some of the most significant. The entire block between 21st and 22nd Streets, on Western, Harvard, Hobart and LaSalle were demolished for the project. The prestigious “Harvard Circle” part of West Adams Heights was completely wiped off the map, with only vague and cryptic references left in newspapers and books. This canyon creates a permanent barrier in a once cohesive neighborhood. Plans for the Olympic Freeway were laid out in the 1947, coincidentally occurring a year after racial covenants were determined to be illegal and African-Americans gained the rights to live in the neighborhood. For almost 20 years, until the freeway’s completion in 1964, black leaders called on the city and the State of California to move the path of the freeway to Washington, Venice or Pico, to spare West Adams Heights, or Sugar Hill as it was becoming known. However, the commission overseeing the project ignored them. Even Mayor Bowron participated in efforts to spare Berkeley Square and West Adams Heights, but members of the commission were unmoved. In the early 1960’s the construction equipment arrived, the houses were removed, and one of LA’s most prestigious enclaves was divided.

24 – Kate A Kelley Residence – 2205 S Hobart Blvd – 1905 – Sumner P Hunt and Arthur Wesley Eager

The architecture team of Hunt & Eager designed this home for Kate A Kelley, the widow of John Kelley. She lived there with her sister Jennie MacKay. By 1915 the house was owned by Abram C Denman, Jr., th vice president and general manager of the Southern California Iron and Steele Company. As a boarding house run by the Agape Mission, the house has fallen on hard times, with stucco, an enclosed porch and aluminum windows. But with some time, money and love, the house could be restored.

25 – John & Gertrude D Kahn and Norman O & Edythe Houston Residence – 2211 S Hobart Blvd – 1911 – Milwaukee Building Company

The Kahn-Houston Residence is arguably one of the most important houses in West Adams Heights. It deserves to be a National Register of Historic places. Unfortunately, at this time (2014) its fate is uncertain. The Agape Mission, which has run an illegal boarding house from the property and from 2205 S Hobart, has recently been closed and both properties appear to be in receivership. This house is so important to the historic fabric of the community because it was the home of Norman O Houston, President of the Golden State Mutual – an insurance company for black Americans who could not obtain insurance from white-owned companies at an affordable price. See the Wikipedia article: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_O._Houston In 1938 Houston (then Vice-President) purchased the home. Wealthy white owners of the neighborhood prevented him from living in his home by re-establishing the “West Adams Heights Improvement Association,” and attempting to codify the rule preventing non-Caucasians from owning or renting property. In 1945 Norman Houston and the other black property owners won the right in court to legally live in the neighborhood. The house had been originally built for John Kahn, an early pioneer to Los Angeles who first came to Oakland, CA, around 1889 with his brother and opened a dry goods store. John moved to Los Angeles 3 years later and opened a large store in the ground floor of the Nadeau Hotel at 1st & Spring. Around 1897 he sold the enterprise and in 1899 incorporated with Jakob Beck to form Kahn-Beck, manufacturing food stuff, including: “All kinds of candy, macaroni and pastas of all kinds.” The company then grew into one of the largest biscuit making companies as the Kahn-Beck Cracker Company, or Kahn Beck Biscuit Company, and Angelus Biscuit Company. John Kahn passed in 1919. The house built in 1911 by the Milwaukee Building Company is in an avant-garde Spanish/Prairie style.

26 – James D & May C Smith and Louise Beavers-Moore & LeRoy C Moore Residence – 2219 S Hobart Blvd – 1904 – Frank M Tyler

For his first home in West Adams Heights, pioneer real estate developer Richard D Richards commissioned Frank M Tyler to build a 16-room English-styled mansion in 1904. Richards sold the property to James D Smith two years later, moving to another Tyler mansion at 2237 S Hobart Blvd and then to 2208 S Western Ave, where the Richards family lived until 1925. James Smith was proprietor of the James Smith & Co, a clothing store of the finest “ready-made” Franklin Brand clothing for men, established in 1902. For years the company operated from the Bryson Block, before relocating to the more fashionable Broadway. In the early 1940’s Louise Beavers joined Norman Houston (2211 S Hobart Ave) and Hattie McDaniel (2203 S Harvard Blvd) in the Heights. Louise Beavers was a talented actress, acclaimed for her role in Imitation of Life as Delilah. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Beavers Louise was married to her second husband, LeRoy C Moore in 1952. LeRoy was a well-known interior decorator. Together the two lived at this house until Louise’s death in October, 1962, and LeRoy’s death four months later in February, 1963. At first glass the Smith-Beavers Residence appears to be completely remodeled, but comparing it to original renderings little has changed. The front left dormer is missing and at some point someone thought it would be a good idea to cover the house in Sears siding (the original siding is probably underneath). But other than having been divided, the house’s integrity remains intact.

27 – Ellen H (Mrs. Melville Morton) Johnston and Curtis & Ellen Williams Residence (Demolished) – 2237 S Hobart Blvd – 1906 – Frank M Tyler

The second residence in West Adams Heights built for Richard D and Cynthia J Richards, in 1906, has been replaced with a 1950’s apartment building. The first Richards home was located at 2219 S Hobart Blvd (the Smith-Beavers Residence). They lived at this house less than two years before relocating to 2208 S Western Ave, where the couple lived out their lives. This home was sold to Ellen H Johnston (Mrs Melville Morton). Melville Morton Johnston may have died April 3, 1892. If I’ve researched the correct person, he was originally from Clifton, Stanton Island, New York. (I mean, how many men named Melville Morton Johnston can there be? Right?) In 1911 Mrs. Johnson sold the house to Curtis Williams. Curtis died at the home in 1959, at the age of 89. Curtis Williams was a pioneering lumberman who came to Los Angeles in 1895. He was born in Oakland and reared in San Diego. He was an early member of the Los Angeles Country Club, the Jonathan Club, and University Club. The house was a rustic Transitional Victorian/Craftsman, having both elements, designed by Frank M. Tyler. It was a perfectly balanced house, whose presence looks more like it would have been designed by John Austin.

28 – Benjamin Johnson Residence – 2241 S Hobart Blvd – 1909 – G A Howard, Jr.

In 1909 Benjamin Johnson commissioned G A Howard to build this charming Transitional Craftsman/Victorian in an English Style. The cost in 1909 was a mere ,000. As president of the Los Angeles Public Market Co (a company owned by Pacific Electric), he could well afford the cost – as well as a domestic, cook and chauffeur. What he could not afford, however, was a scandal involving his under-aged rebel daughter Estelle. In 1914, on a return trip from finishing school in Washington, DC, after a brief visit to her grandfather in Chicago. For eluded reasons, she was hastily married to Mr. Terrance Ryan. To employ his new son-in-law, Mr. Johnson purchased a produce company and gave Mr. Ryan a position and a promise of a bungalow. This appears not to have been enough, and the Johnsons were forced to petition the courts for the divorce of their daughter and Mr. Ryan on grounds he could not provide. The Johnsons must have been scandalized when the entire affair was laid out in the Los Angeles Times society pages.

29 – John Newton & Annie Berdella Evans Russell Jr. Residence – 2263 S Hobart Blvd – 1906

Above the portico of this residence is the address “2249” S Hobart Blvd, however its legal address (according to the tax assessor’s maps) is actually 2263 S Hobart. The confusion is understandable. The property sits on three lots from what would have been 2249 (where the house actually sits) to the actual address of 2263 (which is the furthest lot south from the house). At this time the architect is unknown, but shows the adept hand of someone like Robert D. Farquar, who designed the John and Dora Haynes mansion on Figueroa in a similar style (demolished), or B. Cooper Corbett, responsible for the magnificent Denker Mansion on Adams Blvd. The house is an Italian Villa, in a Florentine style, years before the practice of designing thematic houses became popular in Los Angeles. This was the home of John Newton Russell, Jr., an insurance man. He was raised mostly in Waco, TX, before moving to Los Angeles with his father, also in the insurance business. Russell ran the Colorado branches of the Frederick Rindge’s Conservative Life Company, before the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. When the company was absorbed into Pacific Mutual, and moved to Los Angeles, Russell was recalled from Colorado to run the “Home Office.” Mr. Russell continued his success in the insurance industry, just as his wife enjoyed great social success. In 1942, their son, John Henry Russell, established the John Newton Russell Memorial Award, as a tribute to his father and mentor, recognizing the accomplishments and contributions of made by an individual in the insurance industry. This is the highest honor awarded by the National Association of Insurance and Financial Advisors (NAIFA), given each year. NAIFA is one of the nation’s oldest and largest associations representing professionals in the insurance and financial industries.

22c – Nielsen Residence – 2010 S Western Ave (E)
Signing a Commercial Lease
Image by Kansas Sebastian
West Adams Heights

“Nowadays we scarcely notice the high stone gates which mark the entrances on Hobart, Harvard, and Oxford streets, south of Washington Boulevard. For one thing, the traffic is too heavy, too swift; and then, again, the gates have been obscured by intrusions of shops and stores. At the base of the stone pillars appears the inscription “West Adams Heights.” There was a time when these entranceways were formidable and haughty, for they marked the ways to one of the first elite residential areas in Los Angeles. . . In the unplanned early-day chaos of Los Angeles, West Adams Heights was obviously something very special, an island in an ocean of bungalows—approachable, but withdrawn and reclusive—one of the few surviving examples of planned urban elegance of the turn of the century.”

– Carey McWilliams, “The Evolution of Sugar Hill,” Script, March, 1949: 30.

Today West Adams Heights is still obviously something special. The past sixty years, however, have not been kind. In 1963 the Santa Monica Freeway cut through the heart of West Adams Heights, dividing the neighborhood, obscuring its continuity. In the 1970’s the city paved over the red brick streets and removed the ornate street lighting. After the neighborhood’s zoning was changed to a higher density, overzealous developers claimed several mansions for apartment buildings. Despite these challenges, however, “The Heights,” as the area was once known, has managed to regain some of its former elegance.

The West Adams Heights tract was laid out in 1902, in what was then a wheat field on the western edge of town. Although the freeway now creates an artificial barrier, the original neighborhood boundaries were Adams Boulevard, La Salle Ave, Washington Boulevard, and Western Avenue. Costly improvements were integrated into the development, such as 75-food wide boulevards (which were some of the first contoured streets not to follow the city grid), lots elevated from the sidewalk, ornate street lighting, and large granite monuments with red-brass electroliers at the entrance to every street. These upgrades increased the lot values, which helped ensure the tract would be an enclave for the elite.

One early real estate ad characterized the neighborhood stating: “West Adams Heights needs no introduction to the public: it is already recognized as being far superior to any other tract. Its high and slightly location, its beautiful view of the city and mountains make t a property unequaled by any other in the city.”

The early residents’ were required to sign a detailed restrictive covenant. This hand-written document required property owners to build a “first-class residence,” of at least two stories, costing no less than two-thousand dollars (at a time when a respectable home could be built for a quarter of that amount, including the land), and built no less than thirty-five feet from the property’s primary boundary. Common in early twentieth century, another clause excluded residents from selling or leasing their properties to non-Caucasians.

By the mid 1930’s, however, most of the restrictions had expired. Between 1938 and 1945 many prominent African-Americans began to make “The Heights” their home. According to Carey McWilliams, West Adams Heights became known “Far and wide as the famous Sugar Hill section of Los Angeles,” and enjoyed a clear preeminence over Washington’s smart Le Droit Park, St. Louis’s Enright Street, West Philadelphia, Chicago’s Westchester, and Harlem’s fabulous Sugar Hill.

West Adams Heights, now also known as Sugar Hill, played a major role in the Civil Rights movement in Los Angeles. In 1938 Norman Houston, president of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, and an African-American, purchased a home at 2211 South Hobart Boulevard. Legal Action from eight homeowners quickly ensued. During that period, other prominent African-Americans began to make Sugar Hill their home – including actress Hattie McDaniels, dentists John and Vada Summerville, actress Louise Beavers, band leader Johnny Otis, and performers Pearl Baily and Ethel Waters, and many more. On December 6, 1945, the “Sugar Hill Cases” were heard before Judge Thurmond Clark, in LA Superior Court. He made history by become the first judge in America to use the 14th Amendment to disallow the enforcement of covenant race restrictions. The Los Angeles Sentinel quoted Judge Clark: “This court is of the opinion that it is time that [African-Americans] are accorded, without reservations and evasions, the full rights guaranteed them under the 14th Amendment.” Gradually, over the last century people of nearly ever background have made historic West Adams their home.

The northern end of West Adams Heights is now protected as part of the Harvard Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone (HPOZ). The Historic West Adams area of Los Angeles (which includes West Adams Heights) boasts the highest concentration of turn-of-the-century homes west of the Mississippi, as well as the highest concentration of National Historic Landmarks, National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Districts, State Historic Landmarks, Los Angeles Cultural-Historic Monuments, and Historic Preservation Overlay Zones in the city. The entirety of West Adams Heights should be nominated as a National Register Historic District, for the quality of homes, the prominence of the architects, notoriety of the people who lived in the neighborhood, and the role it played in civil rights.

Perhaps a quote adapted from a fireplace mantle in the Frederick Rindge mansion best symbolizes the optimism which exists in West Adams: “California Shall be Ours as Long as the Stars Remain.”

19 – James G & Rose Ganahl Donovan Residence – 2179 W 20th St, Moved from 2202 S Western Ave – 1903 – Robert Brown Young

James Donovan began as an apprentice to a watch maker in Aurora, IL, working his way up to Lead Mechanic and an eventual partner in the company, before branching into jewelry on his own. Accompanied by his sister in 1894 he came to Los Angeles for a month’s long vacation. At the end he decided to stay one more week – then three more months – and then founded to stay. He began Donovan & Seaman’s Co on Spring St, near Temple, when it was the heart of the LA’s shopping district. He later moved the store to 3rd & Spring St, then 7th & Broadway. When he built his residence, he chose a prominent location, placing it directly in front of the Berkeley Square gates, on the southeast corner of Western Ave and 22nd St. The home was designed by R B Young in a Transitional Victorian/Craftsman style, leaning more toward the Victorian. Young was a prolific architect in Los Angeles, designing many homes and office buildings, including the Vickery-Brunswig Building, San Fernando Building and Clifton’s Brookdale. The house was moved to its present location in 1929 as Western Ave transitioned to a commercial thoroughfare and the street was widened.

20 – Paul W Hoffmann Residence – 1926 S Western Ave – 1904

Charles Albert Rockwell was a partner in the building firm Martin & Rockwell, and through his company built several houses in West Adams Heights, on Western Avenue, including: 1926, 1962 and 2020 S Western Ave. He himself lived at 1962 S Western Ave before moving down the street to 2020 S Western Ave. This Transitional Craftsman/Victorian house he sold to Paul Hoffmann, dealing in loans and real estate. While most of the houses along the commercial corridors have vanished, this house and a few others, have managed to survive mostly intact.

21 – Ellis Doughl and Alphonso Barmann Residence – 1934 S Western Ave – 1905

A 1905 property permit to the building firm Pool & Jones suggests this is one of the few properties in West Adams Heights built on spec (speculation of a perspective buyer). The home was purchased by Ellis Doughl – who may or may not have lived on the property. In 1911 Newton H Foster, a junior clerk for the Santa Fe, appears to be renting the property, and in 1912 the property is sold to F Barmann for ,500. The 1915 City Directory shows Alphonso (Gen Contr), Herbert (Mach), Natalie (Tchr) and Walter (Mach) Barmann at the property. They had moved from their house on the other side of the Heights at 2047 La Salle Ave. Alphanso Barmann was given the general contract for construction of the 10 story Higgins Building in 1909. The house is Transitional Craftsman/Victorian with strong Colonial influences.

22 – Hans B & Ethyleen Nielsen Residence – 2010 S Western Ave – 1911

Built in the “Elizabethan Style” common at the time, this large Transitional Craftsman/Victorian incorporates half timbering and pebble-dash stucco into the design. It appears to have been built for Hans B and Ethyleen Nielsen.

23 – The Santa Monica Freeway – 21st to 22nd Streets – Originally called the Olympic Freeway – 1964

Like a river cutting through the heart of West Adams Heights, the Olympic Freeway as it was first called claimed approximately one-third of the homes, and some of the most significant. The entire block between 21st and 22nd Streets, on Western, Harvard, Hobart and LaSalle were demolished for the project. The prestigious “Harvard Circle” part of West Adams Heights was completely wiped off the map, with only vague and cryptic references left in newspapers and books. This canyon creates a permanent barrier in a once cohesive neighborhood. Plans for the Olympic Freeway were laid out in the 1947, coincidentally occurring a year after racial covenants were determined to be illegal and African-Americans gained the rights to live in the neighborhood. For almost 20 years, until the freeway’s completion in 1964, black leaders called on the city and the State of California to move the path of the freeway to Washington, Venice or Pico, to spare West Adams Heights, or Sugar Hill as it was becoming known. However, the commission overseeing the project ignored them. Even Mayor Bowron participated in efforts to spare Berkeley Square and West Adams Heights, but members of the commission were unmoved. In the early 1960’s the construction equipment arrived, the houses were removed, and one of LA’s most prestigious enclaves was divided.

24 – Kate A Kelley Residence – 2205 S Hobart Blvd – 1905 – Sumner P Hunt and Arthur Wesley Eager

The architecture team of Hunt & Eager designed this home for Kate A Kelley, the widow of John Kelley. She lived there with her sister Jennie MacKay. By 1915 the house was owned by Abram C Denman, Jr., th vice president and general manager of the Southern California Iron and Steele Company. As a boarding house run by the Agape Mission, the house has fallen on hard times, with stucco, an enclosed porch and aluminum windows. But with some time, money and love, the house could be restored.

25 – John & Gertrude D Kahn and Norman O & Edythe Houston Residence – 2211 S Hobart Blvd – 1911 – Milwaukee Building Company

The Kahn-Houston Residence is arguably one of the most important houses in West Adams Heights. It deserves to be a National Register of Historic places. Unfortunately, at this time (2014) its fate is uncertain. The Agape Mission, which has run an illegal boarding house from the property and from 2205 S Hobart, has recently been closed and both properties appear to be in receivership. This house is so important to the historic fabric of the community because it was the home of Norman O Houston, President of the Golden State Mutual – an insurance company for black Americans who could not obtain insurance from white-owned companies at an affordable price. See the Wikipedia article: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_O._Houston In 1938 Houston (then Vice-President) purchased the home. Wealthy white owners of the neighborhood prevented him from living in his home by re-establishing the “West Adams Heights Improvement Association,” and attempting to codify the rule preventing non-Caucasians from owning or renting property. In 1945 Norman Houston and the other black property owners won the right in court to legally live in the neighborhood. The house had been originally built for John Kahn, an early pioneer to Los Angeles who first came to Oakland, CA, around 1889 with his brother and opened a dry goods store. John moved to Los Angeles 3 years later and opened a large store in the ground floor of the Nadeau Hotel at 1st & Spring. Around 1897 he sold the enterprise and in 1899 incorporated with Jakob Beck to form Kahn-Beck, manufacturing food stuff, including: “All kinds of candy, macaroni and pastas of all kinds.” The company then grew into one of the largest biscuit making companies as the Kahn-Beck Cracker Company, or Kahn Beck Biscuit Company, and Angelus Biscuit Company. John Kahn passed in 1919. The house built in 1911 by the Milwaukee Building Company is in an avant-garde Spanish/Prairie style.

26 – James D & May C Smith and Louise Beavers-Moore & LeRoy C Moore Residence – 2219 S Hobart Blvd – 1904 – Frank M Tyler

For his first home in West Adams Heights, pioneer real estate developer Richard D Richards commissioned Frank M Tyler to build a 16-room English-styled mansion in 1904. Richards sold the property to James D Smith two years later, moving to another Tyler mansion at 2237 S Hobart Blvd and then to 2208 S Western Ave, where the Richards family lived until 1925. James Smith was proprietor of the James Smith & Co, a clothing store of the finest “ready-made” Franklin Brand clothing for men, established in 1902. For years the company operated from the Bryson Block, before relocating to the more fashionable Broadway. In the early 1940’s Louise Beavers joined Norman Houston (2211 S Hobart Ave) and Hattie McDaniel (2203 S Harvard Blvd) in the Heights. Louise Beavers was a talented actress, acclaimed for her role in Imitation of Life as Delilah. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Beavers Louise was married to her second husband, LeRoy C Moore in 1952. LeRoy was a well-known interior decorator. Together the two lived at this house until Louise’s death in October, 1962, and LeRoy’s death four months later in February, 1963. At first glass the Smith-Beavers Residence appears to be completely remodeled, but comparing it to original renderings little has changed. The front left dormer is missing and at some point someone thought it would be a good idea to cover the house in Sears siding (the original siding is probably underneath). But other than having been divided, the house’s integrity remains intact.

27 – Ellen H (Mrs. Melville Morton) Johnston and Curtis & Ellen Williams Residence (Demolished) – 2237 S Hobart Blvd – 1906 – Frank M Tyler

The second residence in West Adams Heights built for Richard D and Cynthia J Richards, in 1906, has been replaced with a 1950’s apartment building. The first Richards home was located at 2219 S Hobart Blvd (the Smith-Beavers Residence). They lived at this house less than two years before relocating to 2208 S Western Ave, where the couple lived out their lives. This home was sold to Ellen H Johnston (Mrs Melville Morton). Melville Morton Johnston may have died April 3, 1892. If I’ve researched the correct person, he was originally from Clifton, Stanton Island, New York. (I mean, how many men named Melville Morton Johnston can there be? Right?) In 1911 Mrs. Johnson sold the house to Curtis Williams. Curtis died at the home in 1959, at the age of 89. Curtis Williams was a pioneering lumberman who came to Los Angeles in 1895. He was born in Oakland and reared in San Diego. He was an early member of the Los Angeles Country Club, the Jonathan Club, and University Club. The house was a rustic Transitional Victorian/Craftsman, having both elements, designed by Frank M. Tyler. It was a perfectly balanced house, whose presence looks more like it would have been designed by John Austin.

28 – Benjamin Johnson Residence – 2241 S Hobart Blvd – 1909 – G A Howard, Jr.

In 1909 Benjamin Johnson commissioned G A Howard to build this charming Transitional Craftsman/Victorian in an English Style. The cost in 1909 was a mere ,000. As president of the Los Angeles Public Market Co (a company owned by Pacific Electric), he could well afford the cost – as well as a domestic, cook and chauffeur. What he could not afford, however, was a scandal involving his under-aged rebel daughter Estelle. In 1914, on a return trip from finishing school in Washington, DC, after a brief visit to her grandfather in Chicago. For eluded reasons, she was hastily married to Mr. Terrance Ryan. To employ his new son-in-law, Mr. Johnson purchased a produce company and gave Mr. Ryan a position and a promise of a bungalow. This appears not to have been enough, and the Johnsons were forced to petition the courts for the divorce of their daughter and Mr. Ryan on grounds he could not provide. The Johnsons must have been scandalized when the entire affair was laid out in the Los Angeles Times society pages.

29 – John Newton & Annie Berdella Evans Russell Jr. Residence – 2263 S Hobart Blvd – 1906

Above the portico of this residence is the address “2249” S Hobart Blvd, however its legal address (according to the tax assessor’s maps) is actually 2263 S Hobart. The confusion is understandable. The property sits on three lots from what would have been 2249 (where the house actually sits) to the actual address of 2263 (which is the furthest lot south from the house). At this time the architect is unknown, but shows the adept hand of someone like Robert D. Farquar, who designed the John and Dora Haynes mansion on Figueroa in a similar style (demolished), or B. Cooper Corbett, responsible for the magnificent Denker Mansion on Adams Blvd. The house is an Italian Villa, in a Florentine style, years before the practice of designing thematic houses became popular in Los Angeles. This was the home of John Newton Russell, Jr., an insurance man. He was raised mostly in Waco, TX, before moving to Los Angeles with his father, also in the insurance business. Russell ran the Colorado branches of the Frederick Rindge’s Conservative Life Company, before the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. When the company was absorbed into Pacific Mutual, and moved to Los Angeles, Russell was recalled from Colorado to run the “Home Office.” Mr. Russell continued his success in the insurance industry, just as his wife enjoyed great social success. In 1942, their son, John Henry Russell, established the John Newton Russell Memorial Award, as a tribute to his father and mentor, recognizing the accomplishments and contributions of made by an individual in the insurance industry. This is the highest honor awarded by the National Association of Insurance and Financial Advisors (NAIFA), given each year. NAIFA is one of the nation’s oldest and largest associations representing professionals in the insurance and financial industries.

Eight Big Mistakes to Avoid When Negotiating a Lease for Your Business

Eight Big Mistakes to Avoid When Negotiating a Lease for Your Business
Signing a commercial lease is a serious commitment. Therefore, be sure to listen to the right legal counsel and take advice from experienced business owners who have rented offices, storefronts or warehouses. According to real estate expert Otto J …
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Chelsea Skin Game Heats Up as Cosmetics Company Signs Lease
Chelsea Skin Game Heats Up as Cosmetics Company Signs Lease. By Terence Cullen Jan. … A growing skincare company is opening a new location in Chelsea for its second permanent store in Manhattan, Commercial Observer has learned. Epidermis …
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Image from page 112 of “Voyage pittoresque en Asie et en Afrique : résumé général des voyages anciens et modernes …” (1839)
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Identifier: voyagepittoresqu02eyri
Title: Voyage pittoresque en Asie et en Afrique : résumé général des voyages anciens et modernes …
Year: 1839 (1830s)
Authors: Eyries, J. B. B. (Jean Baptiste Benoit), 1767-1846 Boilly, Jules
Subjects: Voyages and travels Discoveries in geography
Publisher: Paris : Furne
Contributing Library: Field Museum of Natural History Library
Digitizing Sponsor: The Field Museum’s Africa Council

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Yw< S £%*»»« f.S/t,. EN jfTRXgnE (5%2X.?v7« CAP DE BONNE-ESPERANCE. 71 sable hérissé de monticules peu élevés. Ou yaperçut des huttes habitées par des Bos< hjes-nians qui senfuirent à lapproche de la cara-vane. On campa dans ce lieu, et à son départ, LeVaillant laissa dans la hutte la plus apparentedu tabac et divers objets de quincaillerie. La journée suivante fut encore plus pénible,parce que les sables quon traversa , en deve-nant plus fins étaient en même temps plus mobi-les. Heureusement quelques heures de marcherendirent lespoir à nos voyageurs; le sol et lesable se montrèrent couverts dune espèce par-ticulière de graminée, les coteaux avaient unaspect moins nu, on y découvrait de chétifsarbrisseaux parmi les grands aloës ; enfin onentendit au N. 0» le mugissement des flots.Aussitôt toute la caravane se mit à galoper pèle-mèle et arriva ainsi sur les bords de la granderivière Orange. Le Vaillant ne tarda pas à sapercevoir quilavait eu le to

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Image from page 172 of “Voyage pittoresque en Asie et en Afrique : résumé général des voyages anciens et modernes …” (1839)
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Identifier: voyagepittoresqu02eyri
Title: Voyage pittoresque en Asie et en Afrique : résumé général des voyages anciens et modernes …
Year: 1839 (1830s)
Authors: Eyries, J. B. B. (Jean Baptiste Benoit), 1767-1846 Boilly, Jules
Subjects: Voyages and travels Discoveries in geography
Publisher: Paris : Furne
Contributing Library: Field Museum of Natural History Library
Digitizing Sponsor: The Field Museum’s Africa Council

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es mil-liers de nos meules de blé, disposées sans symé-trie , et lon aura une idée exacte de la capitaledu Fouta-Dhiallon. Les habitans entretiennentdes relations très-fréquentes avec le Rio-Nunezet Sierra-Leone. » Nos voyageurs se mirent enroute le 23, et allèrent visiter la source du Séné-gal. M. Mollien grava sur lécorce dun des ar-bres voisins, la date de lannée dans laquelle ilavait fait cette découverte. Laspect des lieux que lon avait parcourusen allant à Timbou, avait totalement changé;le pays plat était inondé, on ne pouvait plusvoyager quen portant ses vivres sur son dos. ABandeïa , M. Mollien acquitta le terrible tributque doivent les Européens à lhumidité péné-trante qui charge lair dans la saison des puii s.La dyssentrie se joignit à une fièvre tenace quile tourmentait depuis plusieurs jours; bientôt ilse crut sur le point de mourir; et il écrivit sesdernières volontés. Dans ces terribles momcns,le nègre qui lavait reçu dans sa case avec uue

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Image from page 215 of “Voyage pittoresque en Asie et en Afrique : résumé général des voyages anciens et modernes …” (1839)
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Identifier: voyagepittoresqu02eyri
Title: Voyage pittoresque en Asie et en Afrique : résumé général des voyages anciens et modernes …
Year: 1839 (1830s)
Authors: Eyries, J. B. B. (Jean Baptiste Benoit), 1767-1846 Boilly, Jules
Subjects: Voyages and travels Discoveries in geography
Publisher: Paris : Furne
Contributing Library: Field Museum of Natural History Library
Digitizing Sponsor: The Field Museum’s Africa Council

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. ,;//,, <£/. BARCAH. 130 même quAryoub-souf. Les ruines de Kasr-Lab-jédabiah sont considérables et du temps desSarrasins. LAkabah-el Kebir est le Calabahlmusmagnas. Ou peut y placer la séparation entreles gouvernemens dEgypte et de Tripoli. LesArabes qui vivent dans les vallées voisines élè-vent des troupeaux et cultivent la terre. Lamontagne de lAkaloah a environ 000 piedsdaltitude ; elle commence immédiatement aubord de la mer, doù elle se divise au S. E. pouraller joindre les hauteurs qui côtoient loasisdAmraon. Les terres, au sommet du plateau,sont très-fertiles; on découvre de là, sur lebord de la mer, Marsah-Soloum (Panormus),port spacieux. On descend dans la vallée de Dafneh, où lonaperçoit partout des canaux dirrigation; Tou-bronk a un port et des ruines du temps des Sar-rasins; des collines avec des grottes sépulcralestrès-bien ornées dans le stvle greco-égyptien etune belle source deau sulfureuse nommée Aïn-el-Gazal sont voisines du golf

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Detainees take part in a computer training class, one of the courses offered at the detention facility along with resume-writing and art. By Larisa Epatko (Tour of Gitmo prison)

Image from page 129 of “Cathedrals, abbeys and churches of England and Wales : descriptive, historical, pictorial” (1890)
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Identifier: cathedralsabbey02bonn
Title: Cathedrals, abbeys and churches of England and Wales : descriptive, historical, pictorial
Year: 1890 (1890s)
Authors: Bonney, T. G. (Thomas George), 1833-1923 Bonney, T. G. (Thomas George), 1833-1923
Subjects: Cathedrals Cathedrals Church buildings Church buildings
Publisher: London : Cassell
Contributing Library: Getty Research Institute
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s of the last named, on all accountsthe first parish church in England. But it has attained its mdest, its deathlessrenown from the close link which binds its name to the tragic story of the boy-poet, Thomas Chatterton, one of the saddest in allthe long annals of unappreciated genius. It isseldom possible to apply the Berkeleian theory,and discover the external, exciting cause of aliterary genesis; but the monk, Thomas Rowley,would never have been invented, the manuscriptswhich Horace Walpole accepted as genuine wouldnever have been written, but for the overmaster-ing influence upon Chattertons mental being ofthe ancient church of St. Mary RedclifPe, underwhose shadow he was born and brought up, besidewhose monuments he sat and meditated, and among whose munimentshe rummaged atwill. No one,therefore, canhope to compre-hend liis characterwithout catchingsomething of thespell under whichhe lived. The right wayfor a stranger toapproach Red-cliifo Church, soas to be duly im-pressed by its

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THE EXTEHIOK. St. Mary Eedcliffe.] THE NORTH PORCH. 399 grandeur, is by the windingthorouglifare of RedclifPe Street,leading from the centre of tliecity. The effect upon his mindmust have been even more strik-ing when this street was as itis still to be seen in a paintingby John Syer—much narrowerthan at present, with over-hanging gabled houses, whichhave been swept away to makeroom for lofty warehouses. Asit is, the stranger emerges froman avenue of houses upon a com-paratively open space, to see theroadway make a sharp ascent, atthe summit of which, on a naturalterrace, stands Redcliffe Church,the massive steeple springing .straight from the ground to aheight of 300 feet. It must havebeen begun when Bishop Poorewas building Salisbmy Cathedral,at the commencement of thethirteenth century, resumed when Henry TIL was rebuilding Westminster AbbeyChurch, and completed to the spring of the spire while Edward I. was erectinghis memorial crosses at the close of the same century. The capst

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Image from page 201 of “Home school of American literature:” (1897)
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Identifier: homeschoolofamer00bird
Title: Home school of American literature:
Year: 1897 (1890s)
Authors: Birdsall, William Wilfred, 1854-1909, [from old catalog] comp. and ed Jones, Rufus Matthew, 1863- [from old catalog] joint comp. and ed
Subjects: American literature English literature
Publisher: Philadelphia, Pa., Elliott publishing co
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
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d resumed his solitary, dreamy existence. For twelve years, from1825 to 1837, he went nowhere, he saw no one; he worked in his room by day,reading and writing; at twilight he wandered out along the shore, or through thedarkened streets of the town. Certainly this was no attractive life to most youngmen; but for Hawthorne it had its fascination and during this time he was storing 1Y3 174 l!iJATHANIEL HAWTHORNE. his mind, forming his style, training his imagination and preparing for the splendidliterary fame of his later years. Hawthorne received his early education in Salem, partly at the school of JosephE. Worcester, the author of Worcesters Dictionary. He entered Bowdoin Col-lege in 1821. The poet, Longfellow, and John S. C. Abbott were his classmates;and Franklin Pierce—one class in advance of him—was his close friend. Hegraduated in 1825 without any special distinction. His first book, Fanshawe,a novel, was issued in 1826, but so poor was its success that he suppressed its fur-

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the old manse, concord, mass. Built for Emersons grandfather. In this house Ralph Waldo Emerson dwelt for ten years, and, here, iathe same roona where Emerson wrote Natureand other philosophic essays, Hawthorne prepared his Twice Told Tales, and Mosses from an Old Manse. He declares the four years (1842-1846) spent iathis house were the happiest of his life. ther publication. Subsequently he placed the manuscript of a collection of storiesin the hands of his publisher, but timidly withdrew and destroyed them. His firstpractical encouragement was received from Samuel G. Goodrich, who published fourstories in the Token, one of the annuals of that time, in 1831. Mr. Goodrichalso engaged Hawthorne as editor of the American Magazine of Useful and Enter-taining Knowledge, which position he occupied from 1836 to 1838. About thistime he also contributed some of his best stories to the New England Magazine,The Knickerbocker, and the Democratic Review. It was a part of these maga-zine stories w

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Image from page 376 of “The history of the American Episcopal Church, 1587-1883” (1885)
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Identifier: americanepiscopa02perr
Title: The history of the American Episcopal Church, 1587-1883
Year: 1885 (1880s)
Authors: Perry, William Stevens, 1832-1898
Subjects: Episcopal Church Autographs
Publisher: Boston : J. R. Osgood
Contributing Library: University of California Libraries
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.§ III. For the greater uniformity and simplicity of the public worship of thisChurch, for the more ellectual enforrcment nf due habits of -iolemn reverencein it.s congrcgal ions, andout of considerate re-gard to the conditionsunder which the exten-sion of tlic Church isnow and hereafter totake place, it is lierebvdcclureil and provided,that in all questionsarising concerningRitual Observance, theAdministration of theLaw of Ritual of thisChurch, whether for en-forcement or for re-striction, appertains tothe otlicc; and duty ofthe () rd i n ary , whoseofficial written deter-mination, whether of hisown motion, or at theofficial demand either ofa Rector or of a Vestry,shall be held to l)e tliesettlement of any ques-tion wliich shall at anytime arise concerningRitual: Proiidcd, how-ever, th:it coiitradictond(!tenninations shall besuliject.on memorial orotlicrwise, to revisionl)y the Mouseof Bishops,under such rules andregulations for bringingthe same before tluni aJicsd/riil, the Iliiusi

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la. i;i;v. w. WlIiniMMlAM.!• >IAKVI.ANI>. !>.!>.. niSlliip said House of Rishops shall i>reseril)e. , f Clerical and Lay Deputies con<-urring. That ;i.joint com-mittee of three of each order be appointed to Ixaminc the Canons of tlie Chunli ofKngland of l(i(t;l, and report to the next (icncral Convention what portions were inn-i(Mn the American States in the year IS.t. and how far the same have been mo.liliedby repeal, or alteration, or olherniod.-, by action of lliis Chnrcli, in its Conventions.General or Diocesan, and whether any portion r<.M|uircs modilication or repeal. TillHouse liilviiiiT resumed (•oii^idci-nliouol llie i;e|iil mi Ifilual,leave was griintcd toMr. Jieniaid tarter t witli.lraw lii- iinilinii y liimto I )r. Meilds aiiuiidiiiiiil. 358 lIlsruUY OF THE AMKUICAN KllSCUl.VL CIIUUCII. The Rev. Ahne

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Title: Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco, a narrative of exploration
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Thomson, Joseph, 1858-1895
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Publisher: London, Philip
Contributing Library: Robarts – University of Toronto
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f-hour and we tumbled our horses andmules into a large ferryboat and crossed the WadUm er Rebia, on the overhans^insr rids^e of whichAzamor is picturesquely situated, looking undoubtedlythe most striking: town on the coast, though havinor no O <- CD buildinsfs worth individual attention. We halted in the market-place to have a muleshod, recralinfr ourselves the while on walnuts andMoorish coffee. Findinsf nothing^ more interestinorthan the old Portuguese fortifications to detain ns,we resumed our march at mid-day. Two and a halfhours later we entered the interesting little town of^lazagan, which in its snowy whiteness we liad seen AZAMOR TO MOGADOR. A7 all the way from Azamor in the most irritating appa-rent proximity. We rode at once to our Vice-Consul, for whom I wascharged with a letter of introduction from Sir KirbyGreen. He showed at once a gratifying alacrity ingiving us information about the only inn in the place,and even had the goodness to send a servant to showus the way.

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MARKET-PLACE, AZAMOR. In the evening we strolled through the town, andadmired the substantial nature of the work left behindby the Portuguese in the old days when they weremasters of the entire western littoral of Morocco. Among other examples of their enterprise whichremain is a good boat-harbour, the only one on thecoast; but indeed Mazagan, of all the towns, possesses 48 MOROCCO. the most striking remains of Portuguese workman-sliip. Being well provided with letters of introduction tothe various merchants, we thought we could not dobetter than see what they were like and what theythought about things Moorish. Calling upon theprincipal one, we found him out, but shortly after,meeting him in the street, we introduced ourselves.He made us feel at once that he guessed we had anidea of writing a book, and had in consequence becomefit objects for his veiled sarcasm. Our hopes of get-ting a cup of tea vanished as he commenced a disser-tation on the silliness of all English books on Morocc

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Image from page 258 of “The history of Romanism: from the earliest corruptions of Christianity to the present time : with full chronological table, analytical and alphabetical indexes and glossary. Illustrated by numerous accurate and highly finished engr
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Title: The history of Romanism: from the earliest corruptions of Christianity to the present time : with full chronological table, analytical and alphabetical indexes and glossary. Illustrated by numerous accurate and highly finished engravings of its ceremonies, superstitions, persecutions, and historical incidents
Year: 1845 (1840s)
Authors: Dowling, John, 1807-1878
Subjects: Catholic Church
Publisher: New York : E. Walker
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onduct of the Emperor excited theindignation of a large portion of the nobility and other subjects ofthe empire, and they would probably have deposed him in reality,if he had not softened their resentment by violating his promise tothe imperious pontiff, and immediately resuming the title and theensigns of royalty. The princes of Lombardy especially couldnever forgive cither the abject humility of Henry, or the haughtyinsolence of Gregory. A bloody war ensued between the domesticGerman enemies of Henry, headed by Rodolph, duke of Swabia,whom, in consequence of the Popes sentence of deposition, theyhad crowned as Emperor at Mentz, on the one side ; and the Lom-bard princes who, impelled by compassion for the humbled monarch,and indignation against the lordly Pope, had rallied round the Em-peror, on the other. As the result of this war appeared extremelydoubtful for a time, Gr< gory assumed an appearance of neutrality,affected to be displeased that Rodolph had been consecrated as Em-

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Emperor Henry IV. doing Penance at the Gate of the Popes Palaee. chap, i.] POPERY THE WORLDS DESPOT—A. D. 1073-1303. 247 Henry retracts his submission to the Pope. Gregory excommunicates him a second time. peror without his order, and avowed his intention of acknowledgingthat one of the competitors who should be most submissive to theHoly See. Henry had already learned too much of the characterof pope Gregory to place much dependence on his generosity, andtherefore, with renewed courage and energy, he marched againsthis enemies, and defeated them in several engagements, till Gregory,seeing no hopes of submission, thundered out a second sentence ofexcommunication against him, confirming at the same time theelection of Rodolph, to whom he sent a golden crown, on whichthe following well known verse, equally haughty and puerile, was.written: Petra dedi Petro, petrus diadema Rodolpho. This donation was also accompanied with a prophetic anathemaagainst Henry, so wild and extravagant, as t

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Parque dos Poetas, Oeiras, Portugal (F.Simoes)

Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa (Lisboa, 13 de Junho de 1888 — Lisboa, 30 de Novembro de 1935), mais conhecido como Fernando Pessoa, foi um poeta, filósofo e escritor português.

O crítico literário Harold Bloom considerou Pessoa como ‘Whitman renascido’ em seu livro The Western Canon4 Nascido no mesmo ano em que T.S. Eliot, Fernando Pessoa é o poeta português mais universal e foi incluído por Harold Bloom em seu cânone entre os 26 melhores escritores da civilização ocidental,5 não apenas da literatura portuguesa mas também da inglesa; por ter sido educado na África do Sul em uma escola católica irlandesa, Pessoa chegou a ter mais familiaridade com o idioma inglês do que com o português ao escrever seus primeiros poemas nesse idioma.

Das quatro obras que publicou em vida, três são na língua inglesa. Fernando Pessoa traduziu várias obras inglesas para português e obras portuguesas (nomeadamente de António Botto e Almada Negreiros) para inglês e Shakespeare e Edgar Poe para o português.

Como poeta, escreveu sob múltiplas personalidades conhecidas como heterónimos, objeto da maior parte dos estudos sobre sua vida e sua obra. Robert Hass diz: "outros modernistas como Yeats, Pound, Elliot inventaram máscaras pelas quais falavam ocasionalmente(…)
Pessoa inventava poetas inteiros.

Biografia

Se depois de eu morrer, quiserem escrever a minha biografia,
Não há nada mais simples.
Tem só duas datas – a da minha nascença e a da minha morte.
Entre uma e outra todos os dias são meus. >>>
Fernando Pessoa/Alberto Caeiro; Poemas Inconjuntos; escrito entre 1913-15; publicado em Atena nº 5 de Fevereiro de 1925.

Primeiros anos em Lisboa[editar]

Fernando Pessoa nasceu neste edifício, no bairro do Chiado, frente à ópera de Lisboa, a 13 de junho de 1888.

Às três horas e vinte e quatro minutos da tarde de 13 de Junho de 1888 nasce em Lisboa Fernando Pessoa. O parto ocorreu no quarto andar direito do n.º 4 do Largo de São Carlos, em frente à ópera de Lisboa (Teatro de São Carlos). De famílias da pequena aristocracia, pelos lados paterno e materno, o pai, Joaquim de Seabra Pessoa (38), natural de Lisboa, era funcionário público do Ministério da Justiça e crítico musical do «Diário de Notícias». A mãe, D. Maria Magdalena Pinheiro Nogueira Pessoa (26), era natural dos Açores (mais propriamente, da Ilha Terceira). Viviam com eles a avó Dionísia, doente mental, e duas criadas velhas, Joana e Emília.

O poeta, pelo lado paterno, tem as suas raízes familiares no concelho de Arouca, nas freguesias do denominado «Fundo do Concelho» de Arouca.9 10 11 .

Fernando António foi baptizado em 21 de Julho na Basílica dos Mártires, ao Chiado, tendo por padrinhos a Tia Anica (D. Ana Luísa Pinheiro Nogueira, tia materna) e o General Chaby. A escolha do nome homenageia Santo António: a família reclamava uma ligação genealógica com Fernando de Bulhões, nome de baptismo de Santo António, tradicionalmente festejado em Lisboa a 13 de Junho, dia em que Fernando Pessoa nasceu.

As suas infância e adolescência foram marcadas por factos que o influenciariam posteriormente. Às cinco horas da manhã de 24 de Julho de 1893, o pai morreu, com 43 anos, vítima de tuberculose. A morte foi anunciada no Diário de Notícias do dia. Fernando tinha apenas cinco anos. O irmão Jorge viria a falecer no ano seguinte, sem completar um ano.3 A mãe vê-se obrigada a leiloar parte da mobília e muda-se para uma casa mais modesta, o terceiro andar do n.º 104 da Rua de São Marçal. Foi também neste período que surgiu o primeiro heterónimo de Fernando Pessoa, Chevalier de Pas, facto relatado pelo próprio a Adolfo Casais Monteiro, numa carta de 1935, em que fala extensamente sobre a origem dos heterónimos. Ainda no mesmo ano, escreve o primeiro poema, um verso curto com a infantil epígrafe de À Minha Querida Mamã. A mãe casa-se pela segunda vez em 1895 por procuração, na Igreja de São Mamede, em Lisboa, com o comandante João Miguel Rosa, cônsul de Portugal em Durban (África do Sul), que havia conhecido um ano antes. Em África, onde passa a maior parte da juventude e recebe educação inglesa, Pessoa viria a demonstrar desde cedo talento para a literatura.

Juventude em Durban

O padrasto e a mãe.
Em razão do casamento, viaja com a mãe para Durban, acompanhados por um tio-avô, Manuel Gualdino da Cunha, que voltaria para Lisboa no mês seguinte. Viajam no navio Funchal até à Madeira e depois no paquete Inglês Hawarden Castle até ao Cabo da Boa Esperança. Faz a instrução primária na escola de freiras irlandesas da West Street, onde fez a primeira comunhão, e percorre em dois anos o equivalente a quatro.
Em 1899 ingressa no Liceu de Durban, onde permanecerá durante três anos e será um dos primeiros alunos da turma. No mesmo ano, cria o pseudónimo Alexander Search, através do qual envia cartas a si mesmo. No ano de 1901, é aprovado com distinção no primeiro exame Cape School High Examination e escreve os primeiros poemas em inglês. Na mesma altura, morre sua irmã Madalena Henriqueta, de dois anos. Em 1901 parte com a família para Portugal, para um ano de férias. No navio em que viajam, o paquete König, vem o corpo da irmã. Em Lisboa, mora com a família em Pedrouços e depois na Avenida de D. Carlos I, n.º 109, 3.º Esquerdo. Na capital portuguesa, nasce João Maria, quarto filho do segundo casamento da mãe de Pessoa. Viaja com a família à Ilha Terceira, nos Açores, onde vive a família materna. Deslocam-se também a Tavira para visitar os parentes paternos. Nessa época, escreve o poema Quando ela passa.

Tendo de dividir a atenção da mãe com os filhos do casamento e com o padrasto, Pessoa isola-se, o que lhe propicia momentos de reflexão.

Tendo recebido uma educação britânica, que lhe proporcionou um profundo contacto com a língua inglesa, os seus primeiros textos e estudos foram em inglês. Mantém contacto com a literatura inglesa através de autores como Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe, John Milton, Lord Byron, John Keats, Percy Shelley, Alfred Tennyson, entre outros. O Inglês teve grande destaque na sua vida, trabalhando com o idioma quando, mais tarde, se torna correspondente comercial em Lisboa, além de o utilizar em alguns dos seus textos e traduzir trabalhos de poetas ingleses, como O Corvo e Annabel Lee de Edgar Allan Poe. Com excepção de Mensagem, os únicos livros publicados em vida são os das colectâneas dos seus poemas ingleses: Antinous e 35 Sonnets e English Poems I – II e III, editados em Lisboa, em 1918 e 1921.

Fernando Pessoa aos seis anos.

Fernando Pessoa permanece em Lisboa, enquanto todos — mãe, padrasto, irmãos e criada Paciência, que viera com ele — regressam a Durban. Volta sozinho para a África no vapor Herzog. Matricula-se na Durban Commercial School, escola comercial de ensino nocturno, enquanto de dia estuda as disciplinas humanísticas para entrar na universidade. Nesse período, tenta escrever contos em inglês, alguns dos quais com o pseudónimo de David Merrick, que deixa inacabados. Em 1903, candidata-se à Universidade do Cabo da Boa Esperança. Na prova de exame de admissão, não obtém boa classificação, mas tira a melhor nota entre os 899 candidatos no ensaio de estilo inglês. Recebe por isso o Queen Victoria Memorial Prize («Prémio Rainha Vitória»).1 Um ano depois, ingressa novamente na Durban High School, onde frequenta o equivalente a um primeiro ano universitário. Aprofunda a sua cultura, lendo clássicos ingleses e latinos. Escreve poesia e prosa em inglês, surgindo os heterónimos Charles Robert Anon e H. M. F. Lecher. Nasce a sua irmã Maria Clara. Publica no jornal do liceu um ensaio crítico intitulado Macaulay. Por fim, encerra os seus bem sucedidos estudos na África do Sul com o «Intermediate Examination in Arts», na Universidade, obtendo uma boa classificação.

Volta definitiva a Portugal e início de carreira

Orpheu nº2, 1915

Deixando a família em Durban, regressa definitivamente à capital portuguesa, sozinho, em 1905. Passa a viver com a avó Dionísia e as duas tias na Rua da Bela Vista, n.º 17. A mãe e o padrasto regressam também a Lisboa, durante um período de férias de um ano em que Pessoa volta a morar com eles. Continua a produção de poemas em inglês e, em 1906, matricula-se no Curso Superior de Letras (actual Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa), que abandona sem sequer completar o primeiro ano. É nesta época que entra em contato com importantes escritores portugueses. Interessa-se pela obra de Cesário Verde e pelos sermões do Padre António Vieira.

Em Agosto de 1907, morre a sua avó Dionísia, deixando-lhe uma pequena herança, com a qual monta uma pequena tipografia, na Rua da Conceição da Glória, 38-4.º, sob o nome de «Empreza Ibis — Typographica e Editora — Officinas a Vapor», que rapidamente vai à falência. A partir de 1908, dedica-se à tradução de correspondência comercial, uma ocupação a que poderíamos dar o nome de "correspondente estrangeiro". Nessa actividade trabalha a vida toda, tendo uma modesta vida pública.

Inicia a sua atividade de ensaísta e crítico literário com o artigo «A Nova Poesia Portuguesa Sociologicamente Considerada», a que se seguiriam «Reincidindo…» e «A Nova Poesia Portuguesa no Seu Aspecto Psicológico» publicados em 1912 pela revista A Águia, órgão da Renascença Portuguesa. Frequenta a tertúlia literária que se formou em torno do seu tio adoptivo, o poeta, general aposentado Henrique Rosa, no Café A Brasileira, no Largo do Chiado em Lisboa. Mais tarde, já nos anos vinte, o seu café preferido seria o Martinho da Arcada, na Praça do Comércio, onde escrevia e se encontrava com amigos e escritores.
Em 1915 participou na revista literária Orpheu, a qual lançou o movimento modernista em Portugal, causando algum escândalo e muita controvérsia. Esta revista publicou apenas dois números, nos quais Pessoa publicou em seu nome, bem como com o heterónimo Álvaro de Campos. No segundo número da Orpheu, Pessoa assume a direcção da revista, juntamente com Mário de Sá-Carneiro.

Em Outubro de 1924, juntamente com o artista plástico Ruy Vaz, Fernando Pessoa lançou a revista Athena, na qual fixou o «drama em gente» dos seus heterónimos, publicando poesias de Ricardo Reis, Álvaro de Campos e Alberto Caeiro, bem como do ortónimo Fernando Pessoa.

Morte

Pessoa foi internado no dia 29 de Novembro de 1935, no Hospital de São Luís dos Franceses, em Lisboa, com diagnóstico de "cólica hepática" causada por cálculo biliar associado a cirrose hepática, diagnóstico que é hoje contestado por estudos médicos, embora o excessivo consumo de álcool ao longo da sua vida seja consensualmente considerado como um importante factor causal. Segundo um desses estudos, Pessoa não revelava alguns dos sintomas mais típicos de cirrose hepática, tendo provavelmente sido vítima de uma pancreatite aguda.12 Morreu no dia 30 de Novembro, com 47 anos de idade. Sua última frase foi escrita na cama do hospital, em inglês, com a data de 29 de Novembro de 1935: "I know not what tomorrow will bring" ("Não sei o que o amanhã trará").

Legado

O espólio de Pessoa: a célebre arca, contendo mais de 25000 páginas, e a «biblioteca inglesa».
Pode-se dizer que a vida do poeta foi dedicada a criar e que, de tanto criar, criou outras vidas através dos seus heterónimos, o que foi a sua principal característica e motivo de interesse pela sua pessoa, aparentemente muito pacata. Alguns críticos questionam se Pessoa realmente teria transparecido o seu verdadeiro eu ou se tudo não teria passado de um produto, entre tantos, da sua vasta criação. Ao tratar de temas subjectivos e usar a heteronímia,13 torna-se enigmático ao extremo. Este fato é o que move grande parte das buscas para estudar a sua obra. O poeta e crítico brasileiro Frederico Barbosa declara que Fernando Pessoa foi "o enigma em pessoa".Escreveu sempre, desde o primeiro poema aos sete anos, até ao leito de morte. Importava-se com a intelectualidade do homem, e pode-se dizer que a sua vida foi uma constante divulgação da língua portuguesa: nas próprias palavras do heterónimo Bernardo Soares, "a minha pátria (sic) é a língua portuguesa". O mesmo empenho é patente no seguinte poema:

Agora, tendo visto tudo e sentido tudo, tenho o dever de me fechar em casa no meu espírito e trabalhar, quanto possa e em tudo quanto possa, para o progresso da civilização e o alargamento da consciência da humanidade

Fernando Pessoa, carta a Armando Côrtes-Rodrigues de 19 de Janeiro de 1915.

Última residência do poeta, actual Casa Fernando Pessoa.
Analogamente a Pompeu, que disse que "navegar é preciso; viver não é preciso", Pessoa diz, no poema Navegar é Preciso, que "viver não é necessário; o que é necessário é criar". Outra interpretação comum deste poema diz respeito ao fato de a navegação ter resultado de uma atitude racionalista do mundo ocidental: a navegação exigiria uma precisão que a vida poderia dispensar.
O poeta mexicano Octavio Paz, laureado com o Nobel de Literatura, diz que "os poetas não têm biografia. A sua obra é a sua biografia" e que, no caso de Fernando Pessoa, "nada na sua vida é surpreendente — nada, excepto os seus poemas". Em The Western Canon, Harold Bloom incluiu-o entre os cânones ocidentais, no capítulo Borges, Neruda e Pessoa: o Whitman Hispano-Português (pg. 451, 1995).
Na comemoração do centenário do nascimento de Pessoa, em 1988, o seu corpo foi trasladado para o Mosteiro dos Jerónimos, confirmando o reconhecimento que não teve em vida.

Pessoa e o ocultismo

Fernando Pessoa interessava-se pelo ocultismo e pelo misticismo, com destaque para a Maçonaria e a Rosa-Cruz (embora não se lhe conheça qualquer filiação concreta em Loja ou Fraternidade dessas escolas de pensamento), havendo inclusive defendido publicamente as organizações iniciáticas no Diário de Lisboa (4 de Fevereiro de 1935), contra ataques por parte da ditadura do Estado Novo. O seu poema hermético mais conhecido e apreciado entre os estudantes de esoterismo intitula-se "No Túmulo de Christian Rosenkreutz". Tinha o hábito de fazer consultas astrológicas para si mesmo (de acordo com a sua certidão de nascimento, nasceu às 15h20, tinha ascendente Escorpião e o Sol em Gémeos).14 Realizou mais de mil horóscopos.

Apreciava também muito o trabalho de Helena Blavatsky tendo inclusive traduzido, em 1916, A Voz do Silêncio, assim como lhe suscitava muita curiosidade o famoso ocultista Aleister Crowley, tendo-lhe traduzido o poema Hino a Pã. Certa vez, lendo uma publicação inglesa de Crowley, encontrou erros no horóscopo e escreveu-lhe para o corrigir. Os seus conhecimentos de astrologia impressionaram Crowley e, como este gostava de viagens, foi a Portugal conhecer o poeta.15 Acompanhou-o a maga alemã Hanni Larissa Jaeger,16 . O encontro entre Pessoa e Crowley ocorreu com algum sensacionalismo, dado o Poeta Inglês ter simulado o seu suicídio na Boca do Inferno, o que atraiu várias polícias Europeias e a atenção dos média da época. Pessoa estaria dentro da encenação, tendo combinado com Crowley a notificação dos jornais e a redacção de um "romance policiário" cujos direitos reverteriam a favor dos dois poetas. Apesar de ter escrito várias dezenas de páginas, essa obra de ficção nunca foi concretizada.

Obra poética

Estátua de Fernando Pessoa da autoria de Lagoa Henriques, no café A Brasileira, no Chiado, Lisboa
O poeta é um fingidor.
Finge tão completamente
Que chega a fingir que é dor
A dor que deveras sente.>>>
Fernando Pessoa; Autopsicografia; 27 de Novembro de 1930 (1ª publ. in Presença, nº 36. Coimbra: Novembro 1932.)18
Considera-se que a grande criação estética de Pessoa foi a invenção heteronímica que atravessa toda a sua obra. Os heterónimos, diferentemente dos pseudónimos, são personalidades poéticas completas: identidades que, em princípio falsas, se tornam verdadeiras através da sua manifestação artística própria e diversa do autor original. Entre os heterónimos, o próprio Fernando Pessoa passou a ser chamado ortónimo, porquanto era a personalidade original. Entretanto, com o amadurecimento de cada uma das outras personalidades, o próprio ortónimo tornou-se apenas mais um heterónimo entre os outros. Os três heterónimos mais conhecidos (e também aqueles com maior obra poética) foram Álvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis e Alberto Caeiro. Um quarto heterónimo de grande importância na obra de Pessoa é Bernardo Soares, autor do Livro do Desassossego, importante obra literária do século XX. Bernardo é considerado um semi-heterónimo por ter muitas semelhanças com Fernando Pessoa e não possuir uma personalidade muito característica, ao contrário dos três primeiros, que possuem até mesmo data de nascimento e morte (excepção para Ricardo Reis, que não possui data de falecimento). Por essa razão, José Saramago, laureado com o Prémio Nobel, escreveu o livro O ano da morte de Ricardo Reis.
Através dos heterónimos, Pessoa conduziu uma profunda reflexão sobre a relação entre verdade, existência e identidade. Este último fator possui grande notabilidade na famosa misteriosidade do poeta.

Com uma tal falta de gente coexistível, como há hoje, que pode um homem de sensibilidade fazer senão inventar os seus amigos, ou quando menos, os seus companheiros de espírito?

Diversos estudiosos de Pessoa procuraram enumerar seus pseudónimos, heterónimos, semi-heterónimos, personagens fictícias e poetas mediúnicos. Em 1966 a portuguesa Teresa Rita Lopes fez um primeiro levantamento, com 18 nomes. Antonio Pina Coelho, também português, elevou em seguida a relação para 21. A mesma Teresa Rita Lopes apresentou um levantamento mais detalhado em 1990, chegando a 72 nomes.20 Em 2009 o holandês Michaël Stoker chegou a 83 heterónimos. Mais recentemente, o brasileiro José Paulo Cavalcanti Filho, utilizando critério mais amplo, apresentou uma lista com 127 nomes.21
Ortónimo[editar]

Mensagem, de Fernando Pessoa, 1ª ed., 1934.

A obra ortónima de Pessoa passou por diferentes fases, mas envolve basicamente a procura de um certo patriotismo perdido, através de uma atitude sebastianista reinventada. O ortónimo foi profundamente influenciado, em vários momentos, por doutrinas religiosas (como a teosofia) e sociedades secretas (como a Maçonaria). A poesia resultante tem um certo ar mítico, heróico (quase épico, mas não na acepção original do termo) e por vezes trágico. Pessoa é um poeta universal, na medida em que nos foi dando, mesmo com contradições, uma visão simultaneamente múltipla e unitária da vida. Uma explicação para a criação dos três principais heterónimos e o semi-heterónimo Bernardo Soares, reside nas várias formas que tinha de olhar o mundo, apoiando-se no racionalismo e pensamento oriental.22
O ortónimo é considerado, só por si, como simbolista e modernista pela evanescência, indefinição e insatisfação, bem como pela inovação praticada através de diversas sendas de formulação do discurso poético (sensacionalismo, paulismo, interseccionismo, etc.).23
Fernando Pessoa foi marcado também pela poesia musical e subjectiva, voltada essencialmente para a metalinguagem e os temas relativos a Portugal, como o sebastianismo presente na principal obra de "Pessoa ele-mesmo", Mensagem, uma coletânea de poemas sobre as grandes personagens históricos portugueses. Publicado em 1934, apenas um ano antes da morte do autor, este foi o único livro de Fernando Pessoa em Língua Portuguesa editado em vida. Foi contemplado com o Prémio Antero de Quental, na categoria de «poema ou poesia solta», do Secretariado da Propaganda Nacional (SPN).2
Heterónimos e Semi-heterónimos[editar]
Álvaro de Campos[editar]
Ver artigo principal: Álvaro de Campos
TABACARIA
Não sou nada.
Nunca serei nada.
Não posso querer ser nada.
À parte isso, tenho em mim todos os sonhos do mundo.
Janelas do meu quarto,
Do meu quarto de um dos milhões do mundo que ninguém sabe quem é
(E se soubessem quem é, o que saberiam?),
Dais para o mistério de uma rua cruzada constantemente por gente,
Para uma rua inacessível a todos os pensamentos,
Real, impossivelmente real, certa, desconhecidamente certa,
Com o mistério das coisas por baixo das pedras e dos seres,
Com a morte a pôr humidade nas paredes e cabelos brancos nos homens,
Com o Destino a conduzir a carroça de tudo pela estrada de nada.
_____________________________________________________
Álvaro de Campos: "Tabacaria" (excerto)
Entre todos os heterónimos, Campos foi o único a manifestar fases poéticas diferentes ao longo da sua obra. Era um engenheiro de educação inglesa e origem portuguesa, mas sempre com a sensação de ser um estrangeiro em qualquer parte do mundo.
Começa a sua trajetória como um decadentista (influenciado pelo simbolismo), mas logo adere ao futurismo. Após uma série de desilusões com a existência, assume uma veia niilista, expressa naquele que é considerado um dos poemas mais conhecidos e influentes da língua portuguesa, Tabacaria. É revoltado e crítico e faz a apologia da velocidade e da vida moderna, com uma linguagem livre, radical.

Ricardo Reis

Ver artigo principal: Ricardo Reis
O heterónimo Ricardo Reis é descrito como um médico que se definia como latinista e monárquico. De certa maneira, simboliza a herança clássica na literatura ocidental, expressa na simetria, na harmonia e num certo bucolismo, com elementos epicuristas e estóicos. O fim inexorável de todos os seres vivos é uma constante na sua obra, clássica, depurada e disciplinada. Faz uso da mitologia não-cristã.
Segundo Pessoa, Reis mudou-se para o Brasil em protesto à proclamação da República em Portugal e não se sabe o ano da sua morte.
Em O ano da morte de Ricardo Reis, José Saramago continua, numa perspectiva pessoal, o universo deste heterónimo após a morte de Fernando Pessoa, cujo fantasma estabelece um diálogo com o seu heterónimo, sobrevivente ao criador.

Alberto Caeiro

Ver artigo principal: Alberto Caeiro
Por sua vez, Caeiro, nascido em Lisboa, teria vivido quase toda a vida como camponês, quase sem estudos formais. Teve apenas a instrução primária, mas é considerado o mestre entre os heterónimos (pelo ortónimo). Depois da morte do pai e da mãe, permaneceu em casa com uma tia-avó, vivendo de modestos rendimentos e morreu de tuberculose. Também é conhecido como o poeta-filósofo, mas rejeitava este título e pregava uma "não-filosofia". Acreditava que os seres simplesmente são, e nada mais: irritava-se com a metafísica e qualquer tipo de simbologia para a vida.

Os escritos pessoanos que versam sobre a caracterização dos heterónimos, "Pessoa-ele-mesmo", Álvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis e o meio-heterónimo Bernardo Soares, conferem a Alberto Caeiro um papel quase místico, enquanto poeta e pensador. Reis e Soares chegam a compará-lo ao deus Pã, e Pessoa esboça-lhe um horóscopo no qual lhe atribui o signo de leão, associado ao elemento fogo. A relevância destas alusões advém da explicação de Fernando Pessoa sobre o papel de Caeiro no escopo da heteronímia. Citando a atuação dos quatro elementos da astrologia sobre a personalidade dos indivíduos, Pessoa escreve:
"Uns agem sobre os homens como o fogo, que queima nele todo o acidental, e os deixa nus e reais, próprios e verídicos, e esses são os libertadores. Caeiro é dessa raça, Caeiro teve essa força."

Dos principais heterónimos de Fernando Pessoa, Caeiro foi o único a não escrever em prosa. Alegava que somente a poesia seria capaz de dar conta da realidade.
Possuía uma linguagem estética direta, concreta e simples mas, ainda assim, bastante complexa do ponto de vista reflexivo. O seu ideário resume-se no verso Há metafísica bastante em não pensar em nada. A sua obra está agrupada na coletânea Poemas Completos de Alberto Caeiro.

Bernardo Soares

Ver artigo principal: Bernardo Soares
Bernardo Soares é, dentro da ficção de seu próprio Livro do Desassossego, um simples ajudante de guarda-livros na cidade de Lisboa. Conheceu Fernando Pessoa numa pequena casa de pasto frequentada por ambos. Foi aí que Bernardo deu a ler a Fernando seu livro, que, mesmo escrito em forma de fragmentos, é considerado uma das obras fundadoras da ficção portuguesa no século XX.24

Bernardo Soares é muitas vezes considerado um semi-heterónimo porque, como seu próprio criador explica:

"Não sendo a personalidade a minha, é, não diferente da minha, mas uma simples mutilação dela. Sou eu menos o raciocínio e afectividade."
A instância da ficção que se desenvolve no livro é insignificante, porque trata-se de uma "autobiografia sem factos", como o próprio Fernando Pessoa situa o livro. Dessa forma, o que interessa em sua prosa fragmentária é a dramaticidade das reflexões humanas que vêm à tona na insistência de uma escrita que se reconhece inviável, inútil e imperfeita, à beira do tédio, do trágico e da indiferença estética. O fato de Fernando Pessoa considerar (em cartas e anotações pessoais) Bernardo Soares um semi-heterônimo faz pensar na maior proximidade de temperamento entre Pessoa e Soares. Nesse sentido, para alguns, o jogo heteronímico ganha em complexidade e Pessoa logra o êxito da construção de si mesmo como o mais instigante mito literário português na Modernidade.

Cronologia

«Fernando Pessoa em flagrante delitro»: dedicatória na fotografia que ofereceu à namorada Ophélia Queiroz em 1929.
A seguir apresenta-se uma cronologia25 26 abreviada da vida do poeta:
1888: Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa nasce, a 13 de Junho. É batizado em Julho.
1893: Em Janeiro, nasce seu irmão Jorge. A 13 de Julho, o pai morre, de tuberculose. A família é obrigada a leiloar parte dos bens.
1894: O irmão de Fernando, Jorge, morre em Janeiro. Pessoa cria o seu primeiro heterônimo. O futuro padrasto, João Miguel Rosa, é nomeado cônsul interino em Durban, na África do Sul.
1895: Em Julho, Fernando escreve o seu primeiro poema e João Miguel Rosa parte para Durban. Em Dezembro, João Miguel Rosa casa-se com a mãe de Fernando, por procuração.
1896: Em 7 de Janeiro, é concedido o passaporte à mãe, e a família parte para Durban. A 27 de Novembro, nasce Henriqueta Madalena, irmã do poeta.
1897: Fernando faz o curso primário e a primeira comunhão em West Street.
1898: Nasce, a 22 de Outubro, sua segunda irmã, Madalena Henriqueta.
1899: Ingressa na Durban High School em Abril. Cria o pseudónimo Alexander Search.
1900: Em Janeiro, nasce o terceiro filho do casal, Luís Miguel. Em Junho, Pessoa passa para a Form III e é premiado em francês.
1901: Em Junho, é aprovado no exame da Cape School High Examination. Madalena Henriqueta falece e Fernando começa a escrever as primeiras poesias em inglês. Em Agosto, parte com a família para uma visita a Portugal.
1902: Em Janeiro, nasce, em Lisboa, seu irmão João Maria. Fernando vai à ilha Terceira em Maio. Em Junho, a família retorna a Durban. Em Setembro, Fernando volta sozinho para Durban.
1903: Submete-se ao exame de admissão à Universidade do Cabo, tirando a melhor nota no ensaio em inglês e ganhando assim o Prémio Rainha Vitória.
1904: Em Agosto, nasce sua irmã Maria Clara e em Dezembro termina os estudos na África do Sul.
1905: Parte definitivamente para Lisboa, onde passa a viver com a avó Dionísia. Continua a escrever poemas em inglês.
1906: Matricula-se, em Outubro, no Curso Superior de Letras. A mãe e o padrasto retornam a Lisboa e Pessoa volta a morar com eles. Falece, em Lisboa, a sua irmã Maria Clara.
1907: A família retorna uma vez mais a Durban. Pessoa passa a morar com a avó. Desiste do Curso Superior de Letras. Em Agosto, a avó morre. Durante um curto período, Pessoa estabelece uma tipografia.
1908: Começa a trabalhar como correspondente estrangeiro em escritórios comerciais.
1910: Escreve poesia e prosa em português, inglês e francês.
1912: Publica na revista Águia o seu primeiro artigo de crítica literária. Idealiza Ricardo Reis.
1913: Intensa produção literária. Escreve O Marinheiro.
Ficheiro:File:Pessoabaixa.jpg
Fernando Pessoa no Baixo, Portugal
1914: Cria os heterônimos Álvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis e Alberto Caeiro. Escreve os poemas de O Guardador de Rebanhos e também o Livro do Desassossego.
1915: Sai em Março o primeiro número de Orpheu. Pessoa "mata" Alberto Caeiro.
1916: O seu amigo Mário de Sá-Carneiro suicida-se.
1918: Publica poemas em inglês, resenhados com destaque no "Times".
1920: Conhece Ofélia Queiroz. Sua mãe e seus irmãos voltam para Portugal. Em Outubro, atravessa uma grande depressão, que o leva a pensar em internar-se numa casa de saúde. Rompe com Ofélia.
1921: Funda a editora Olisipo, onde publica poemas em inglês.
1924: Aparece a revista "Atena", dirigida por Fernando Pessoa e Ruy Vaz.
1925: A 17 de Março, morre, em Lisboa, a mãe do poeta.
1926: Dirige com seu cunhado a "Revista de Comércio e Contabilidade". Requer patente de uma invenção sua.
1927: Passa a colaborar com a revista Presença.
1929: Volta a relacionar-se com Ofélia.
1931: Rompe novamente com Ofélia.
1934: Publica Mensagem.
1935: Em 29 de Novembro, é internado com o diagnóstico de cólica hepática. Morre no dia 30 do mesmo mês.

Official lap warmer, if my dog had a resume.
Resume
Image by dollen

Lease Holdover Clause in an Expiring Retail Commercial Lease

Discussing the Holdover Clause in Retail Commercial Leases for Business Owners. Valuable to know when negotiating a lease extension, negotiating a new lease rate, or any negotiating any new lease terms.
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28b – Johnson Residence – 2241 S Hobart Blvd (E)

Check out these Signing a Commercial Lease images:

28b – Johnson Residence – 2241 S Hobart Blvd (E)
Signing a Commercial Lease
Image by Kansas Sebastian
West Adams Heights

“Nowadays we scarcely notice the high stone gates which mark the entrances on Hobart, Harvard, and Oxford streets, south of Washington Boulevard. For one thing, the traffic is too heavy, too swift; and then, again, the gates have been obscured by intrusions of shops and stores. At the base of the stone pillars appears the inscription “West Adams Heights.” There was a time when these entranceways were formidable and haughty, for they marked the ways to one of the first elite residential areas in Los Angeles. . . In the unplanned early-day chaos of Los Angeles, West Adams Heights was obviously something very special, an island in an ocean of bungalows—approachable, but withdrawn and reclusive—one of the few surviving examples of planned urban elegance of the turn of the century.”

– Carey McWilliams, “The Evolution of Sugar Hill,” Script, March, 1949: 30.

Today West Adams Heights is still obviously something special. The past sixty years, however, have not been kind. In 1963 the Santa Monica Freeway cut through the heart of West Adams Heights, dividing the neighborhood, obscuring its continuity. In the 1970’s the city paved over the red brick streets and removed the ornate street lighting. After the neighborhood’s zoning was changed to a higher density, overzealous developers claimed several mansions for apartment buildings. Despite these challenges, however, “The Heights,” as the area was once known, has managed to regain some of its former elegance.

The West Adams Heights tract was laid out in 1902, in what was then a wheat field on the western edge of town. Although the freeway now creates an artificial barrier, the original neighborhood boundaries were Adams Boulevard, La Salle Ave, Washington Boulevard, and Western Avenue. Costly improvements were integrated into the development, such as 75-food wide boulevards (which were some of the first contoured streets not to follow the city grid), lots elevated from the sidewalk, ornate street lighting, and large granite monuments with red-brass electroliers at the entrance to every street. These upgrades increased the lot values, which helped ensure the tract would be an enclave for the elite.

One early real estate ad characterized the neighborhood stating: “West Adams Heights needs no introduction to the public: it is already recognized as being far superior to any other tract. Its high and slightly location, its beautiful view of the city and mountains make t a property unequaled by any other in the city.”

The early residents’ were required to sign a detailed restrictive covenant. This hand-written document required property owners to build a “first-class residence,” of at least two stories, costing no less than two-thousand dollars (at a time when a respectable home could be built for a quarter of that amount, including the land), and built no less than thirty-five feet from the property’s primary boundary. Common in early twentieth century, another clause excluded residents from selling or leasing their properties to non-Caucasians.

By the mid 1930’s, however, most of the restrictions had expired. Between 1938 and 1945 many prominent African-Americans began to make “The Heights” their home. According to Carey McWilliams, West Adams Heights became known “Far and wide as the famous Sugar Hill section of Los Angeles,” and enjoyed a clear preeminence over Washington’s smart Le Droit Park, St. Louis’s Enright Street, West Philadelphia, Chicago’s Westchester, and Harlem’s fabulous Sugar Hill.

West Adams Heights, now also known as Sugar Hill, played a major role in the Civil Rights movement in Los Angeles. In 1938 Norman Houston, president of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, and an African-American, purchased a home at 2211 South Hobart Boulevard. Legal Action from eight homeowners quickly ensued. During that period, other prominent African-Americans began to make Sugar Hill their home – including actress Hattie McDaniels, dentists John and Vada Summerville, actress Louise Beavers, band leader Johnny Otis, and performers Pearl Baily and Ethel Waters, and many more. On December 6, 1945, the “Sugar Hill Cases” were heard before Judge Thurmond Clark, in LA Superior Court. He made history by become the first judge in America to use the 14th Amendment to disallow the enforcement of covenant race restrictions. The Los Angeles Sentinel quoted Judge Clark: “This court is of the opinion that it is time that [African-Americans] are accorded, without reservations and evasions, the full rights guaranteed them under the 14th Amendment.” Gradually, over the last century people of nearly ever background have made historic West Adams their home.

The northern end of West Adams Heights is now protected as part of the Harvard Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone (HPOZ). The Historic West Adams area of Los Angeles (which includes West Adams Heights) boasts the highest concentration of turn-of-the-century homes west of the Mississippi, as well as the highest concentration of National Historic Landmarks, National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Districts, State Historic Landmarks, Los Angeles Cultural-Historic Monuments, and Historic Preservation Overlay Zones in the city. The entirety of West Adams Heights should be nominated as a National Register Historic District, for the quality of homes, the prominence of the architects, notoriety of the people who lived in the neighborhood, and the role it played in civil rights.

Perhaps a quote adapted from a fireplace mantle in the Frederick Rindge mansion best symbolizes the optimism which exists in West Adams: “California Shall be Ours as Long as the Stars Remain.”

19 – James G & Rose Ganahl Donovan Residence – 2179 W 20th St, Moved from 2202 S Western Ave – 1903 – Robert Brown Young

James Donovan began as an apprentice to a watch maker in Aurora, IL, working his way up to Lead Mechanic and an eventual partner in the company, before branching into jewelry on his own. Accompanied by his sister in 1894 he came to Los Angeles for a month’s long vacation. At the end he decided to stay one more week – then three more months – and then founded to stay. He began Donovan & Seaman’s Co on Spring St, near Temple, when it was the heart of the LA’s shopping district. He later moved the store to 3rd & Spring St, then 7th & Broadway. When he built his residence, he chose a prominent location, placing it directly in front of the Berkeley Square gates, on the southeast corner of Western Ave and 22nd St. The home was designed by R B Young in a Transitional Victorian/Craftsman style, leaning more toward the Victorian. Young was a prolific architect in Los Angeles, designing many homes and office buildings, including the Vickery-Brunswig Building, San Fernando Building and Clifton’s Brookdale. The house was moved to its present location in 1929 as Western Ave transitioned to a commercial thoroughfare and the street was widened.

20 – Paul W Hoffmann Residence – 1926 S Western Ave – 1904

Charles Albert Rockwell was a partner in the building firm Martin & Rockwell, and through his company built several houses in West Adams Heights, on Western Avenue, including: 1926, 1962 and 2020 S Western Ave. He himself lived at 1962 S Western Ave before moving down the street to 2020 S Western Ave. This Transitional Craftsman/Victorian house he sold to Paul Hoffmann, dealing in loans and real estate. While most of the houses along the commercial corridors have vanished, this house and a few others, have managed to survive mostly intact.

21 – Ellis Doughl and Alphonso Barmann Residence – 1934 S Western Ave – 1905

A 1905 property permit to the building firm Pool & Jones suggests this is one of the few properties in West Adams Heights built on spec (speculation of a perspective buyer). The home was purchased by Ellis Doughl – who may or may not have lived on the property. In 1911 Newton H Foster, a junior clerk for the Santa Fe, appears to be renting the property, and in 1912 the property is sold to F Barmann for ,500. The 1915 City Directory shows Alphonso (Gen Contr), Herbert (Mach), Natalie (Tchr) and Walter (Mach) Barmann at the property. They had moved from their house on the other side of the Heights at 2047 La Salle Ave. Alphanso Barmann was given the general contract for construction of the 10 story Higgins Building in 1909. The house is Transitional Craftsman/Victorian with strong Colonial influences.

22 – Hans B & Ethyleen Nielsen Residence – 2010 S Western Ave – 1911

Built in the “Elizabethan Style” common at the time, this large Transitional Craftsman/Victorian incorporates half timbering and pebble-dash stucco into the design. It appears to have been built for Hans B and Ethyleen Nielsen.

23 – The Santa Monica Freeway – 21st to 22nd Streets – Originally called the Olympic Freeway – 1964

Like a river cutting through the heart of West Adams Heights, the Olympic Freeway as it was first called claimed approximately one-third of the homes, and some of the most significant. The entire block between 21st and 22nd Streets, on Western, Harvard, Hobart and LaSalle were demolished for the project. The prestigious “Harvard Circle” part of West Adams Heights was completely wiped off the map, with only vague and cryptic references left in newspapers and books. This canyon creates a permanent barrier in a once cohesive neighborhood. Plans for the Olympic Freeway were laid out in the 1947, coincidentally occurring a year after racial covenants were determined to be illegal and African-Americans gained the rights to live in the neighborhood. For almost 20 years, until the freeway’s completion in 1964, black leaders called on the city and the State of California to move the path of the freeway to Washington, Venice or Pico, to spare West Adams Heights, or Sugar Hill as it was becoming known. However, the commission overseeing the project ignored them. Even Mayor Bowron participated in efforts to spare Berkeley Square and West Adams Heights, but members of the commission were unmoved. In the early 1960’s the construction equipment arrived, the houses were removed, and one of LA’s most prestigious enclaves was divided.

24 – Kate A Kelley Residence – 2205 S Hobart Blvd – 1905 – Sumner P Hunt and Arthur Wesley Eager

The architecture team of Hunt & Eager designed this home for Kate A Kelley, the widow of John Kelley. She lived there with her sister Jennie MacKay. By 1915 the house was owned by Abram C Denman, Jr., th vice president and general manager of the Southern California Iron and Steele Company. As a boarding house run by the Agape Mission, the house has fallen on hard times, with stucco, an enclosed porch and aluminum windows. But with some time, money and love, the house could be restored.

25 – John & Gertrude D Kahn and Norman O & Edythe Houston Residence – 2211 S Hobart Blvd – 1911 – Milwaukee Building Company

The Kahn-Houston Residence is arguably one of the most important houses in West Adams Heights. It deserves to be a National Register of Historic places. Unfortunately, at this time (2014) its fate is uncertain. The Agape Mission, which has run an illegal boarding house from the property and from 2205 S Hobart, has recently been closed and both properties appear to be in receivership. This house is so important to the historic fabric of the community because it was the home of Norman O Houston, President of the Golden State Mutual – an insurance company for black Americans who could not obtain insurance from white-owned companies at an affordable price. See the Wikipedia article: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_O._Houston In 1938 Houston (then Vice-President) purchased the home. Wealthy white owners of the neighborhood prevented him from living in his home by re-establishing the “West Adams Heights Improvement Association,” and attempting to codify the rule preventing non-Caucasians from owning or renting property. In 1945 Norman Houston and the other black property owners won the right in court to legally live in the neighborhood. The house had been originally built for John Kahn, an early pioneer to Los Angeles who first came to Oakland, CA, around 1889 with his brother and opened a dry goods store. John moved to Los Angeles 3 years later and opened a large store in the ground floor of the Nadeau Hotel at 1st & Spring. Around 1897 he sold the enterprise and in 1899 incorporated with Jakob Beck to form Kahn-Beck, manufacturing food stuff, including: “All kinds of candy, macaroni and pastas of all kinds.” The company then grew into one of the largest biscuit making companies as the Kahn-Beck Cracker Company, or Kahn Beck Biscuit Company, and Angelus Biscuit Company. John Kahn passed in 1919. The house built in 1911 by the Milwaukee Building Company is in an avant-garde Spanish/Prairie style.

26 – James D & May C Smith and Louise Beavers-Moore & LeRoy C Moore Residence – 2219 S Hobart Blvd – 1904 – Frank M Tyler

For his first home in West Adams Heights, pioneer real estate developer Richard D Richards commissioned Frank M Tyler to build a 16-room English-styled mansion in 1904. Richards sold the property to James D Smith two years later, moving to another Tyler mansion at 2237 S Hobart Blvd and then to 2208 S Western Ave, where the Richards family lived until 1925. James Smith was proprietor of the James Smith & Co, a clothing store of the finest “ready-made” Franklin Brand clothing for men, established in 1902. For years the company operated from the Bryson Block, before relocating to the more fashionable Broadway. In the early 1940’s Louise Beavers joined Norman Houston (2211 S Hobart Ave) and Hattie McDaniel (2203 S Harvard Blvd) in the Heights. Louise Beavers was a talented actress, acclaimed for her role in Imitation of Life as Delilah. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Beavers Louise was married to her second husband, LeRoy C Moore in 1952. LeRoy was a well-known interior decorator. Together the two lived at this house until Louise’s death in October, 1962, and LeRoy’s death four months later in February, 1963. At first glass the Smith-Beavers Residence appears to be completely remodeled, but comparing it to original renderings little has changed. The front left dormer is missing and at some point someone thought it would be a good idea to cover the house in Sears siding (the original siding is probably underneath). But other than having been divided, the house’s integrity remains intact.

27 – Ellen H (Mrs. Melville Morton) Johnston and Curtis & Ellen Williams Residence (Demolished) – 2237 S Hobart Blvd – 1906 – Frank M Tyler

The second residence in West Adams Heights built for Richard D and Cynthia J Richards, in 1906, has been replaced with a 1950’s apartment building. The first Richards home was located at 2219 S Hobart Blvd (the Smith-Beavers Residence). They lived at this house less than two years before relocating to 2208 S Western Ave, where the couple lived out their lives. This home was sold to Ellen H Johnston (Mrs Melville Morton). Melville Morton Johnston may have died April 3, 1892. If I’ve researched the correct person, he was originally from Clifton, Stanton Island, New York. (I mean, how many men named Melville Morton Johnston can there be? Right?) In 1911 Mrs. Johnson sold the house to Curtis Williams. Curtis died at the home in 1959, at the age of 89. Curtis Williams was a pioneering lumberman who came to Los Angeles in 1895. He was born in Oakland and reared in San Diego. He was an early member of the Los Angeles Country Club, the Jonathan Club, and University Club. The house was a rustic Transitional Victorian/Craftsman, having both elements, designed by Frank M. Tyler. It was a perfectly balanced house, whose presence looks more like it would have been designed by John Austin.

28 – Benjamin Johnson Residence – 2241 S Hobart Blvd – 1909 – G A Howard, Jr.

In 1909 Benjamin Johnson commissioned G A Howard to build this charming Transitional Craftsman/Victorian in an English Style. The cost in 1909 was a mere ,000. As president of the Los Angeles Public Market Co (a company owned by Pacific Electric), he could well afford the cost – as well as a domestic, cook and chauffeur. What he could not afford, however, was a scandal involving his under-aged rebel daughter Estelle. In 1914, on a return trip from finishing school in Washington, DC, after a brief visit to her grandfather in Chicago. For eluded reasons, she was hastily married to Mr. Terrance Ryan. To employ his new son-in-law, Mr. Johnson purchased a produce company and gave Mr. Ryan a position and a promise of a bungalow. This appears not to have been enough, and the Johnsons were forced to petition the courts for the divorce of their daughter and Mr. Ryan on grounds he could not provide. The Johnsons must have been scandalized when the entire affair was laid out in the Los Angeles Times society pages.

29 – John Newton & Annie Berdella Evans Russell Jr. Residence – 2263 S Hobart Blvd – 1906

Above the portico of this residence is the address “2249” S Hobart Blvd, however its legal address (according to the tax assessor’s maps) is actually 2263 S Hobart. The confusion is understandable. The property sits on three lots from what would have been 2249 (where the house actually sits) to the actual address of 2263 (which is the furthest lot south from the house). At this time the architect is unknown, but shows the adept hand of someone like Robert D. Farquar, who designed the John and Dora Haynes mansion on Figueroa in a similar style (demolished), or B. Cooper Corbett, responsible for the magnificent Denker Mansion on Adams Blvd. The house is an Italian Villa, in a Florentine style, years before the practice of designing thematic houses became popular in Los Angeles. This was the home of John Newton Russell, Jr., an insurance man. He was raised mostly in Waco, TX, before moving to Los Angeles with his father, also in the insurance business. Russell ran the Colorado branches of the Frederick Rindge’s Conservative Life Company, before the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. When the company was absorbed into Pacific Mutual, and moved to Los Angeles, Russell was recalled from Colorado to run the “Home Office.” Mr. Russell continued his success in the insurance industry, just as his wife enjoyed great social success. In 1942, their son, John Henry Russell, established the John Newton Russell Memorial Award, as a tribute to his father and mentor, recognizing the accomplishments and contributions of made by an individual in the insurance industry. This is the highest honor awarded by the National Association of Insurance and Financial Advisors (NAIFA), given each year. NAIFA is one of the nation’s oldest and largest associations representing professionals in the insurance and financial industries.

20b – Hoffmann Residence – 1926 S Western Ave (E)
Signing a Commercial Lease
Image by Kansas Sebastian
West Adams Heights

“Nowadays we scarcely notice the high stone gates which mark the entrances on Hobart, Harvard, and Oxford streets, south of Washington Boulevard. For one thing, the traffic is too heavy, too swift; and then, again, the gates have been obscured by intrusions of shops and stores. At the base of the stone pillars appears the inscription “West Adams Heights.” There was a time when these entranceways were formidable and haughty, for they marked the ways to one of the first elite residential areas in Los Angeles. . . In the unplanned early-day chaos of Los Angeles, West Adams Heights was obviously something very special, an island in an ocean of bungalows—approachable, but withdrawn and reclusive—one of the few surviving examples of planned urban elegance of the turn of the century.”

– Carey McWilliams, “The Evolution of Sugar Hill,” Script, March, 1949: 30.

Today West Adams Heights is still obviously something special. The past sixty years, however, have not been kind. In 1963 the Santa Monica Freeway cut through the heart of West Adams Heights, dividing the neighborhood, obscuring its continuity. In the 1970’s the city paved over the red brick streets and removed the ornate street lighting. After the neighborhood’s zoning was changed to a higher density, overzealous developers claimed several mansions for apartment buildings. Despite these challenges, however, “The Heights,” as the area was once known, has managed to regain some of its former elegance.

The West Adams Heights tract was laid out in 1902, in what was then a wheat field on the western edge of town. Although the freeway now creates an artificial barrier, the original neighborhood boundaries were Adams Boulevard, La Salle Ave, Washington Boulevard, and Western Avenue. Costly improvements were integrated into the development, such as 75-food wide boulevards (which were some of the first contoured streets not to follow the city grid), lots elevated from the sidewalk, ornate street lighting, and large granite monuments with red-brass electroliers at the entrance to every street. These upgrades increased the lot values, which helped ensure the tract would be an enclave for the elite.

One early real estate ad characterized the neighborhood stating: “West Adams Heights needs no introduction to the public: it is already recognized as being far superior to any other tract. Its high and slightly location, its beautiful view of the city and mountains make t a property unequaled by any other in the city.”

The early residents’ were required to sign a detailed restrictive covenant. This hand-written document required property owners to build a “first-class residence,” of at least two stories, costing no less than two-thousand dollars (at a time when a respectable home could be built for a quarter of that amount, including the land), and built no less than thirty-five feet from the property’s primary boundary. Common in early twentieth century, another clause excluded residents from selling or leasing their properties to non-Caucasians.

By the mid 1930’s, however, most of the restrictions had expired. Between 1938 and 1945 many prominent African-Americans began to make “The Heights” their home. According to Carey McWilliams, West Adams Heights became known “Far and wide as the famous Sugar Hill section of Los Angeles,” and enjoyed a clear preeminence over Washington’s smart Le Droit Park, St. Louis’s Enright Street, West Philadelphia, Chicago’s Westchester, and Harlem’s fabulous Sugar Hill.

West Adams Heights, now also known as Sugar Hill, played a major role in the Civil Rights movement in Los Angeles. In 1938 Norman Houston, president of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, and an African-American, purchased a home at 2211 South Hobart Boulevard. Legal Action from eight homeowners quickly ensued. During that period, other prominent African-Americans began to make Sugar Hill their home – including actress Hattie McDaniels, dentists John and Vada Summerville, actress Louise Beavers, band leader Johnny Otis, and performers Pearl Baily and Ethel Waters, and many more. On December 6, 1945, the “Sugar Hill Cases” were heard before Judge Thurmond Clark, in LA Superior Court. He made history by become the first judge in America to use the 14th Amendment to disallow the enforcement of covenant race restrictions. The Los Angeles Sentinel quoted Judge Clark: “This court is of the opinion that it is time that [African-Americans] are accorded, without reservations and evasions, the full rights guaranteed them under the 14th Amendment.” Gradually, over the last century people of nearly ever background have made historic West Adams their home.

The northern end of West Adams Heights is now protected as part of the Harvard Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone (HPOZ). The Historic West Adams area of Los Angeles (which includes West Adams Heights) boasts the highest concentration of turn-of-the-century homes west of the Mississippi, as well as the highest concentration of National Historic Landmarks, National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Districts, State Historic Landmarks, Los Angeles Cultural-Historic Monuments, and Historic Preservation Overlay Zones in the city. The entirety of West Adams Heights should be nominated as a National Register Historic District, for the quality of homes, the prominence of the architects, notoriety of the people who lived in the neighborhood, and the role it played in civil rights.

Perhaps a quote adapted from a fireplace mantle in the Frederick Rindge mansion best symbolizes the optimism which exists in West Adams: “California Shall be Ours as Long as the Stars Remain.”

19 – James G & Rose Ganahl Donovan Residence – 2179 W 20th St, Moved from 2202 S Western Ave – 1903 – Robert Brown Young

James Donovan began as an apprentice to a watch maker in Aurora, IL, working his way up to Lead Mechanic and an eventual partner in the company, before branching into jewelry on his own. Accompanied by his sister in 1894 he came to Los Angeles for a month’s long vacation. At the end he decided to stay one more week – then three more months – and then founded to stay. He began Donovan & Seaman’s Co on Spring St, near Temple, when it was the heart of the LA’s shopping district. He later moved the store to 3rd & Spring St, then 7th & Broadway. When he built his residence, he chose a prominent location, placing it directly in front of the Berkeley Square gates, on the southeast corner of Western Ave and 22nd St. The home was designed by R B Young in a Transitional Victorian/Craftsman style, leaning more toward the Victorian. Young was a prolific architect in Los Angeles, designing many homes and office buildings, including the Vickery-Brunswig Building, San Fernando Building and Clifton’s Brookdale. The house was moved to its present location in 1929 as Western Ave transitioned to a commercial thoroughfare and the street was widened.

20 – Paul W Hoffmann Residence – 1926 S Western Ave – 1904

Charles Albert Rockwell was a partner in the building firm Martin & Rockwell, and through his company built several houses in West Adams Heights, on Western Avenue, including: 1926, 1962 and 2020 S Western Ave. He himself lived at 1962 S Western Ave before moving down the street to 2020 S Western Ave. This Transitional Craftsman/Victorian house he sold to Paul Hoffmann, dealing in loans and real estate. While most of the houses along the commercial corridors have vanished, this house and a few others, have managed to survive mostly intact.

21 – Ellis Doughl and Alphonso Barmann Residence – 1934 S Western Ave – 1905

A 1905 property permit to the building firm Pool & Jones suggests this is one of the few properties in West Adams Heights built on spec (speculation of a perspective buyer). The home was purchased by Ellis Doughl – who may or may not have lived on the property. In 1911 Newton H Foster, a junior clerk for the Santa Fe, appears to be renting the property, and in 1912 the property is sold to F Barmann for ,500. The 1915 City Directory shows Alphonso (Gen Contr), Herbert (Mach), Natalie (Tchr) and Walter (Mach) Barmann at the property. They had moved from their house on the other side of the Heights at 2047 La Salle Ave. Alphanso Barmann was given the general contract for construction of the 10 story Higgins Building in 1909. The house is Transitional Craftsman/Victorian with strong Colonial influences.

22 – Hans B & Ethyleen Nielsen Residence – 2010 S Western Ave – 1911

Built in the “Elizabethan Style” common at the time, this large Transitional Craftsman/Victorian incorporates half timbering and pebble-dash stucco into the design. It appears to have been built for Hans B and Ethyleen Nielsen.

23 – The Santa Monica Freeway – 21st to 22nd Streets – Originally called the Olympic Freeway – 1964

Like a river cutting through the heart of West Adams Heights, the Olympic Freeway as it was first called claimed approximately one-third of the homes, and some of the most significant. The entire block between 21st and 22nd Streets, on Western, Harvard, Hobart and LaSalle were demolished for the project. The prestigious “Harvard Circle” part of West Adams Heights was completely wiped off the map, with only vague and cryptic references left in newspapers and books. This canyon creates a permanent barrier in a once cohesive neighborhood. Plans for the Olympic Freeway were laid out in the 1947, coincidentally occurring a year after racial covenants were determined to be illegal and African-Americans gained the rights to live in the neighborhood. For almost 20 years, until the freeway’s completion in 1964, black leaders called on the city and the State of California to move the path of the freeway to Washington, Venice or Pico, to spare West Adams Heights, or Sugar Hill as it was becoming known. However, the commission overseeing the project ignored them. Even Mayor Bowron participated in efforts to spare Berkeley Square and West Adams Heights, but members of the commission were unmoved. In the early 1960’s the construction equipment arrived, the houses were removed, and one of LA’s most prestigious enclaves was divided.

24 – Kate A Kelley Residence – 2205 S Hobart Blvd – 1905 – Sumner P Hunt and Arthur Wesley Eager

The architecture team of Hunt & Eager designed this home for Kate A Kelley, the widow of John Kelley. She lived there with her sister Jennie MacKay. By 1915 the house was owned by Abram C Denman, Jr., th vice president and general manager of the Southern California Iron and Steele Company. As a boarding house run by the Agape Mission, the house has fallen on hard times, with stucco, an enclosed porch and aluminum windows. But with some time, money and love, the house could be restored.

25 – John & Gertrude D Kahn and Norman O & Edythe Houston Residence – 2211 S Hobart Blvd – 1911 – Milwaukee Building Company

The Kahn-Houston Residence is arguably one of the most important houses in West Adams Heights. It deserves to be a National Register of Historic places. Unfortunately, at this time (2014) its fate is uncertain. The Agape Mission, which has run an illegal boarding house from the property and from 2205 S Hobart, has recently been closed and both properties appear to be in receivership. This house is so important to the historic fabric of the community because it was the home of Norman O Houston, President of the Golden State Mutual – an insurance company for black Americans who could not obtain insurance from white-owned companies at an affordable price. See the Wikipedia article: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_O._Houston In 1938 Houston (then Vice-President) purchased the home. Wealthy white owners of the neighborhood prevented him from living in his home by re-establishing the “West Adams Heights Improvement Association,” and attempting to codify the rule preventing non-Caucasians from owning or renting property. In 1945 Norman Houston and the other black property owners won the right in court to legally live in the neighborhood. The house had been originally built for John Kahn, an early pioneer to Los Angeles who first came to Oakland, CA, around 1889 with his brother and opened a dry goods store. John moved to Los Angeles 3 years later and opened a large store in the ground floor of the Nadeau Hotel at 1st & Spring. Around 1897 he sold the enterprise and in 1899 incorporated with Jakob Beck to form Kahn-Beck, manufacturing food stuff, including: “All kinds of candy, macaroni and pastas of all kinds.” The company then grew into one of the largest biscuit making companies as the Kahn-Beck Cracker Company, or Kahn Beck Biscuit Company, and Angelus Biscuit Company. John Kahn passed in 1919. The house built in 1911 by the Milwaukee Building Company is in an avant-garde Spanish/Prairie style.

26 – James D & May C Smith and Louise Beavers-Moore & LeRoy C Moore Residence – 2219 S Hobart Blvd – 1904 – Frank M Tyler

For his first home in West Adams Heights, pioneer real estate developer Richard D Richards commissioned Frank M Tyler to build a 16-room English-styled mansion in 1904. Richards sold the property to James D Smith two years later, moving to another Tyler mansion at 2237 S Hobart Blvd and then to 2208 S Western Ave, where the Richards family lived until 1925. James Smith was proprietor of the James Smith & Co, a clothing store of the finest “ready-made” Franklin Brand clothing for men, established in 1902. For years the company operated from the Bryson Block, before relocating to the more fashionable Broadway. In the early 1940’s Louise Beavers joined Norman Houston (2211 S Hobart Ave) and Hattie McDaniel (2203 S Harvard Blvd) in the Heights. Louise Beavers was a talented actress, acclaimed for her role in Imitation of Life as Delilah. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Beavers Louise was married to her second husband, LeRoy C Moore in 1952. LeRoy was a well-known interior decorator. Together the two lived at this house until Louise’s death in October, 1962, and LeRoy’s death four months later in February, 1963. At first glass the Smith-Beavers Residence appears to be completely remodeled, but comparing it to original renderings little has changed. The front left dormer is missing and at some point someone thought it would be a good idea to cover the house in Sears siding (the original siding is probably underneath). But other than having been divided, the house’s integrity remains intact.

27 – Ellen H (Mrs. Melville Morton) Johnston and Curtis & Ellen Williams Residence (Demolished) – 2237 S Hobart Blvd – 1906 – Frank M Tyler

The second residence in West Adams Heights built for Richard D and Cynthia J Richards, in 1906, has been replaced with a 1950’s apartment building. The first Richards home was located at 2219 S Hobart Blvd (the Smith-Beavers Residence). They lived at this house less than two years before relocating to 2208 S Western Ave, where the couple lived out their lives. This home was sold to Ellen H Johnston (Mrs Melville Morton). Melville Morton Johnston may have died April 3, 1892. If I’ve researched the correct person, he was originally from Clifton, Stanton Island, New York. (I mean, how many men named Melville Morton Johnston can there be? Right?) In 1911 Mrs. Johnson sold the house to Curtis Williams. Curtis died at the home in 1959, at the age of 89. Curtis Williams was a pioneering lumberman who came to Los Angeles in 1895. He was born in Oakland and reared in San Diego. He was an early member of the Los Angeles Country Club, the Jonathan Club, and University Club. The house was a rustic Transitional Victorian/Craftsman, having both elements, designed by Frank M. Tyler. It was a perfectly balanced house, whose presence looks more like it would have been designed by John Austin.

28 – Benjamin Johnson Residence – 2241 S Hobart Blvd – 1909 – G A Howard, Jr.

In 1909 Benjamin Johnson commissioned G A Howard to build this charming Transitional Craftsman/Victorian in an English Style. The cost in 1909 was a mere ,000. As president of the Los Angeles Public Market Co (a company owned by Pacific Electric), he could well afford the cost – as well as a domestic, cook and chauffeur. What he could not afford, however, was a scandal involving his under-aged rebel daughter Estelle. In 1914, on a return trip from finishing school in Washington, DC, after a brief visit to her grandfather in Chicago. For eluded reasons, she was hastily married to Mr. Terrance Ryan. To employ his new son-in-law, Mr. Johnson purchased a produce company and gave Mr. Ryan a position and a promise of a bungalow. This appears not to have been enough, and the Johnsons were forced to petition the courts for the divorce of their daughter and Mr. Ryan on grounds he could not provide. The Johnsons must have been scandalized when the entire affair was laid out in the Los Angeles Times society pages.

29 – John Newton & Annie Berdella Evans Russell Jr. Residence – 2263 S Hobart Blvd – 1906

Above the portico of this residence is the address “2249” S Hobart Blvd, however its legal address (according to the tax assessor’s maps) is actually 2263 S Hobart. The confusion is understandable. The property sits on three lots from what would have been 2249 (where the house actually sits) to the actual address of 2263 (which is the furthest lot south from the house). At this time the architect is unknown, but shows the adept hand of someone like Robert D. Farquar, who designed the John and Dora Haynes mansion on Figueroa in a similar style (demolished), or B. Cooper Corbett, responsible for the magnificent Denker Mansion on Adams Blvd. The house is an Italian Villa, in a Florentine style, years before the practice of designing thematic houses became popular in Los Angeles. This was the home of John Newton Russell, Jr., an insurance man. He was raised mostly in Waco, TX, before moving to Los Angeles with his father, also in the insurance business. Russell ran the Colorado branches of the Frederick Rindge’s Conservative Life Company, before the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. When the company was absorbed into Pacific Mutual, and moved to Los Angeles, Russell was recalled from Colorado to run the “Home Office.” Mr. Russell continued his success in the insurance industry, just as his wife enjoyed great social success. In 1942, their son, John Henry Russell, established the John Newton Russell Memorial Award, as a tribute to his father and mentor, recognizing the accomplishments and contributions of made by an individual in the insurance industry. This is the highest honor awarded by the National Association of Insurance and Financial Advisors (NAIFA), given each year. NAIFA is one of the nation’s oldest and largest associations representing professionals in the insurance and financial industries.