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Image from page 887 of “Baltimore and Ohio employees magazine” (1920)

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Image from page 887 of “Baltimore and Ohio employees magazine” (1920)
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Identifier: baltimoreohioemp10balt
Title: Baltimore and Ohio employees magazine
Year: 1920 (1920s)
Authors: Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company
Subjects: Railroads — Employees — Periodicals Railroads — United States — Employees
Publisher: [Baltimore, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad]
Contributing Library: University of Maryland, College Park
Digitizing Sponsor: LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation

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ly transferred from Willard to Cin-cinnati, has taken residence in that havenof railroad men—Madisonville. However,one or two angels will not be enough toaccomplish much in a place like that. H. L. Gandenburg, newly appointedStation Service inspector, succeeding C. J.Armstrong, displays in the position thesame energy which has marked his thus farsuccessful journey in the service of theCompany. A model filing system, branching from theregular office system, has been installed byour Station Service Department. As itappreciably reduces the man failure factorand eases the burden on the oft abused fileclerk, it might well be patterned after byother departments on the System. When it comes to getting passengerequipment where it is needed in a hurry,pass the wreath to Jimmie Flanagan.Trainmaster Purkheiser says Jim wasalso good at calling crews. See America First has been changedby W. P. Cahill to See Cincinna,ti Dust,which he does at every opportunity in therecently acquired gasoline bus.

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They Keep Things Going in Cincinnati Genera! Offices Baltimore and Ohio Magazine, April, 1923 69 It is safe to say at any time, without anypreparation or reference to the classics,that T. W. Calvin is capable of deliverinRa thorough denunciation of the female cardriver; his ability along those lines is basedon several unsuccessful attempts to keepIhem from getting in the way or out of theway of his car. Cincinnati Terminals Correspondent, J. BeelEvery Day in Every Way!By Yardmasler C. H. Wiehe Xow every day in every wayBaltimore and Ohio trains, they say,Run so swiftly on their way—Run on time most every day. Xow every day in every way Public feels so glad to say Baltimore and Ohio growing, evcr- day, Better and better in every way. Now every day in e-ery way(Ccue charged us this to say,I3ut let him paddle on his way 1Our trains will run on time each day. Car Inspector H. S. Prather, East Nor-wood, is back on the job again, after twomonths absence because of illness. Gladto have H

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Image from page 143 of “Baltimore and Ohio employees magazine” (1912)
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Identifier: baltimoreohioemp07balt
Title: Baltimore and Ohio employees magazine
Year: 1912 (1910s)
Authors: Baltimore and Ohio employees magazine Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company
Subjects: Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company
Publisher: [Baltimore, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad]
Contributing Library: University of Maryland, College Park
Digitizing Sponsor: LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation

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Seppe, Seppe,I no see you no more, my poora bambino.Corpo di Bacco, Joe, you oughta see himnow,—stronga lika bulla,—arm lika that-a—gotta fina job-a now, pull-a da truck-aonB. &0. Pier 22 Message 5: Did she say that? Her husband pays income tax! Andshe coming to me every once in a whileto borrow a quarter or a dime, to getmilk for the baby, you know (withsuds on it, I think). And she borrowedmy aluminum riceboiler and brought itback with a dent in the handle, and Message 6: cluck, cluck, cluck —he-ha-ha-haee—isnt that just awful?And then he said, Mame, says he, some-thing is droppin offn you. Gee, it was my garter and I almost died ! (Chorus) Aint that fierce, cluck, cluck,cluck, &c. Message 7: -say mister, will you train that gun of yours down whenyou sneeze. I dont mind the back ofmy coat so much, but dont spray myears and collar Message 8: stop that, Harry, somebody might know us Then the conductor called out: Allout for -teenth avenoo, which is my cueto exit. 35

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William F. Ottman Representative Employe of the Ohio Division In the issue of April, 1916, we started in the Magazine the series of portraits, Represen-tative Employes of the Railroad, the picture of the employe being on the left page and the brieftribute to him, on the right. The following sketch is the second in a new series and will befollowed by other similar sketches until each division has had its representative appear. Theselection of one man to represent a division does not mean that he is the only employe worthy ofthe distinction—rather that he is a representative of the good character and fine record attained byother of his coworkers. William F. Ottman was born at Schooleys Station, Ross County, Ohio,October 7, 1856. At the age of ten he moved with his parents to Zaleski,Ohio. He entered the service of the old Marietta and Cincinnati RailroadCompany, February 25, 1869, as a messenger boy at fiity cents per day,under chief clerk Edward Gabe, superintendent of car shops Thom

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Army Management Staff College Civilian Education System Basic Course kicks off
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ABERDEEN PROVING GROUNDS, Md. – Officials from the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command welcomed 33 students to the Army Management Staff College Civilian Education System Basic Course Dec. 7.

This is the first time the Army has exported the class outside the AMSC campus. The RDECOM leadership partnered with AMSC to bring the program to Aberdeen to begin leadership training in anticipation of the impact of Base Realignment and Closure. The BRAC will bring thousands of jobs to APG in the next couple of years. Read more…

Image from page 191 of “Baltimore and Ohio employees magazine” (1912)

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Image from page 191 of “Baltimore and Ohio employees magazine” (1912)
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Identifier: baltimoreohioemp07balt
Title: Baltimore and Ohio employees magazine
Year: 1912 (1910s)
Authors: Baltimore and Ohio employees magazine Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company
Subjects: Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company
Publisher: [Baltimore, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad]
Contributing Library: University of Maryland, College Park
Digitizing Sponsor: LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation

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that when my Maker calls, we can bejoined together to live throughout eternity. It is with deep regret that we report thatGeorge Wall^urn, a well known brakeman. who, fell from his train on April 20, had his right legso badly crushed that amputation was neces-sary. His leg was taken off betw^een the hij)and the knee. He was rushed to the Hoffmanhospital, Dr. Hoffman performing the opera-tion. He is recovering. William Jennings Bryan spoke to the shopmen in the machine shop at noon on April 26.The place was packed and all enjoyed ^theaddress on the League of Nations andProhibition. Brackett Tharp, fireman, recently visitedhis sailor son at Norfolk. Watch us put tho Victory Loan over iw.top. Wc havent failed yet, and wellfinish the job. Yard conductor Scott Core and wife, of Pai korslMirg, attended the funeral of the motlierof ticket clerk Kight. Scott renewed oldacquaintcnances while in Keyser. James Swick, car icpnirer, has developed acase of small pox and is iiridcc f pial ani inc.

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■Ai(y MiHth, Day Porter at Keyser The accompanying picture is of AndySmith, day porter at the passenger station atKeyser. Andy is a good fellow, who attendsstrictly to business and is always ready toaccommodate the public. The storekeepers office has been moved tothe passenger station until some alterationsare completed. A recent fire badly burned the record roomon the third floor at the Baltimore and Ohioshops. When first detected smoke was comingfrom the slate roof and the fire increasedrapidly. Captain Shelly and his company, as-sisted by the entire shop force, fought for sev-eral hours before the blaze was put out. Aconsiderable amount of damage was done to thenorth end of the shops, the office rooms and therecord rooms being completely ruined. Thefvnniture jmd records were carried from Mr.Fillers department, but the records and draw-ing room mat(nial were completely destroyed.Tli(^ Keyser firt; d;^partment and our own effi-cient f()rc< cooperate to the best advantage. atev

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Great Bay Community College Advanced Composites Manufacturing Lab grand opening
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Great Bay Community College Advanced Composites Manufacturing teaching lab grand opening celebration. Mandatory credit: Advanced Manufacturing Partnerships in Education/AMPed NH

The Cheerleaders of Cerritos College
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Cerritos College cheerleaders and Japanese Exchange Students worked together for September 20, 2008’s football game at Cerritos College, Norwalk, California. The Japanese students are from Osaka Japan in an exchange student program in coordination by California State University – Long Beach and Cerritos College. Together, the Japanese Sports Medicine students learn a valuable on-the-job training and be part of the actions, too. Also, check out the photographs from September 19, 2008’s soccer game and softball game that included Japanese students vs Cerritos College students on some friendly games. On related note, there are photographs from September 18, 2008’s track and field with the exchange students from Osaka College of High Technology. You get to view some mean pitches from both of the worlds. Those photographs are also found in the "Cerritos College, Norwalk CA" collection. If you want hard copy on CD-ROM or DVD-R, contact me via e-mail at art.pets@gmail.com. (Michael Oh)

Image from page 144 of “Stories of persons and places in Europe” (1887)

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Image from page 144 of “Stories of persons and places in Europe” (1887)
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Identifier: storiesofpersons00bene
Title: Stories of persons and places in Europe
Year: 1887 (1880s)
Authors: Benedict, E. L. [from old catalog]
Subjects:
Publisher: New York, London, G. Routledge and sons
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: The Library of Congress

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house, for it would make him,he said, an excellent bath. His terri-fied vassals tried to persuade him not to commit such a fearful sacrilege,but he only laughed at their fears and insisted upon its being brought atonce. Never fear, he said the cool night air will do the water goodand in the morning you will find it fresher than ever. Trembling with apprehensions, the servants took the cover from the Ireland 141 mouth, of the well and carried it to the room of the audacious prince. Asthey did so they imagined that they heard awful sounds coming from it,threatening them with vengeance. Fearful and anxious, they retired forthe night, but one more alarmed than the others fled to the mountains. In themorning he looked down into the valley where lie had left hisprince and companions and instead of the magnificent city, there was agreat lake of water. So much credit is given to this legend that some of the fishermen arestill confident that they can see palaces and towers glimmering from the

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ON THE LEE, CORK. bottom of the lake when the water is clear. They also declare that when astorm is approaching ODonoghues giant figure maybe seen riding overthe waves on a snorting white horse. The beautiful scenery about Killarney is sadly marred by sights ofhuman wretchedness. Among the few fine mansions of the nobility, arehosts of wretched hovels. Within the well-kept grounds of the aristocraticenclosures, all is greenness and fertility, without all is want and misery.The landlords family lives in luxury ; the tenants go hungry and in rags.Nearly all of his earnings are taken for rent; and even if he could save alittle he cannot buy a foot of land. No matter how frugal and industrious 142 Persons and Places in Europe. he is he can do little to improve his condition. It would be some consola-tion if the landlord had the better right to the soil; bnt when the tenantremembers that his ancestors were driven out to make room for those of hislord it is no wonder that he protests and re

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Image from page 162 of “The uncrowned king : the life and public services of Hon. Charles Stewart Parnell ; comprising a graphic story of his ancestry; also family reminiscences, related by his aged mother, Delia Tudor Stewart Parnell … ; also, a bilgra
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Identifier: uncrownedkinglif00mcwa
Title: The uncrowned king : the life and public services of Hon. Charles Stewart Parnell ; comprising a graphic story of his ancestry; also family reminiscences, related by his aged mother, Delia Tudor Stewart Parnell … ; also, a bilgraphical sketch of his great co-laborer, Rt. Hon. Wm. E. Gladstone
Year: 1891 (1890s)
Authors: McWade, Robert M. (Robert Malachi), b. 1857
Subjects: Parnell, Charles Stewart, 1846-1891
Publisher: [Philadelphia] : Edgewood Pub. Co.
Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

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.1,749evictions; in 1879 2,607; and, as was shown bymy right honorable and learned friend, 1,690 inthe five and a half months of this year-^showinga further increase upon the enormous increaseof last year, and showing in fact unless it bechecked that 15,000 individuals will be ejectedfrom their homes without hope, without remedyin the course of the present year. By the fail-ure of the crops during the year 1879 the actof God had replaced the Irish occupier in thecondition in which he stood before the Land Act;Because what had he to contemplate ? He hadto contemplate eviction for his non-payment ofrent; and, as a consequence of eviction, starva-tion ; and it is no exaggeration to say, in a coun-try where the agricultural pursuit is the only pur-suit, and where the means of the payment of rentare entirely destroyed for a time by the visitationof Providence, that the poor occupier may underthese circumstances regard a sentence of evictionas coming, for him, very near a sentence ofdeath.

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DANIEL OCONNELL, THE GREAT IRISH AGITATOR. ic8 CtlARLES STEWART PARNELL. Very remarkable consequences followed fromthe rejection of the Disturbance Bill by the Houseof Lords. There were 15,000 people about to beevicted from their homes—about to have decreedagainst them by the landlords sentences of death.The tenant was left, therefore, to use Mr. Glad-stones words again, without hope, withoutremedy. CHAPTER XI. COERCION IN FULL SWING. In January, 1881, Parliament was called to-gether, nearly a month earlier than usual, in orderto give **the Forster Government time to passits subsequent measures of Coercion. Aftertheir passage there began a fierce and mercilesswar between the Irish people and the Britishauthorities. One of the first acts of the detestable Forsterwas the employment of retired or dismissed mili-tary and civil officers to put down all free expres-sion of opinion. One of these ruffians, CliffordLloyd, maybe taken as a fair sample of his fel-lows. It is related of him by

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Image from page 348 of “A history of Wilkes-Barré, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania : from its first beginnings to the present time, including chapters of newly-discovered early Wyoming Valley history, together with many biographical sketches and much genealo

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Image from page 348 of “A history of Wilkes-Barré, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania : from its first beginnings to the present time, including chapters of newly-discovered early Wyoming Valley history, together with many biographical sketches and much genealo
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Identifier: historyofwilkesb06harv
Title: A history of Wilkes-Barré, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania : from its first beginnings to the present time, including chapters of newly-discovered early Wyoming Valley history, together with many biographical sketches and much genealogical material
Year: 1909 (1900s)
Authors: Harvey, Oscar Jewell, 1851-1922 Smith, Ernest Gray
Subjects:
Publisher: Wilkes-Barré : Raeder Press
Contributing Library: University of Pittsburgh Library System
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Pittsburgh Library System

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stationed in that section. In 1911 heentered the Law School of the University ofPennsylvania, and graduated three yearslater with the degree of Bachelor of Daws.In 1914 he was admitted to the bar, includingthe right to practice before the SupremeCourt of Pennsylvania and the various sub-ordinate courts and in June, 1919, he wasadmitted to practice before the SupremeCourt of the United States. After he resignedfrom the Navy he took an active interest inthe work of the National Guard of Penn-sylvania, which he served during 1912-13, andin which he attained the rank of lieutenant,when he resigned his commission to devotemore attention to the practice of the law.When the World ttar involved the UnitedStates in 1917 he was commissioned a lieu-tenant (junior grade) in the Navy as avolunteer, and was assigned to duty underAdmiral Leigh C. Palmer, chief of the Bureauof Navigation, Navy Department, at Wash-ington, District of Columbia, in connectionwith the organization and administration, of

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pj|i.i.i!i!iiiiiljiui.i,il,i:i.,iiillJiii,iil!iil;iiihiliill,iiil!lii!l!iii.i.. .liiiiiJiii.iliiiiiiiiiliiliililjii!iJii:liJiiilllJiiiliiajliillA ^Owf^^^^^ec^ the personnel of the United States NavalReserve Force, particularly in formulatingand executing- policies involving the entryof commissioned officers and their promotion.In 191S he received from Admiral Palmer(who later became president of the Emer-gency Fleet Corporation of the ShippingBoard) special letters of appreciation for hisvaluable work in the Bureau of Navigation intraining officers and men; a special letter in1919 from the Chief of the Bureau of Navi-gation for his service in the Bureau involvinghis actie and directing part in the organiza-tion and administration of the Naval ReserveForce during the World War; other lettersof appreciation on various phases of his serv-ice in World War duty. From lieutenant(junior grade) he was advanced to seniorgrade lieutenant, and thence to the rank oflieutenant-Commander, which he

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Franklin’s Philadelphia
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On the left: the "B. Free Franklin" Post Office, where your postcards are guaranteed to be hand cancelled. On the right: a house owned by Franklin and rented out to tenants.

Tenants’ Rights in D.C.
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May 2014
Photos by Natalie Chwalisz

Image taken from page 245 of ‘Französische Geschichte bis zur Revolutionszeit … Mit einer Karte’

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Image taken from page 245 of ‘Französische Geschichte bis zur Revolutionszeit … Mit einer Karte’
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Title: "Französische Geschichte bis zur Revolutionszeit … Mit einer Karte"
Author: CONTZEN, Leopold.
Shelfmark: "British Library HMNTS 9230.g.9."
Page: 245
Place of Publishing: Köln
Date of Publishing: 1870
Issuance: monographic
Identifier: 000770596

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Image from page 30 of “A history of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight” (1900)

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Image from page 30 of “A history of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight” (1900)
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Identifier: historyofhampshi04doub
Title: A history of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight
Year: 1900 (1900s)
Authors: Doubleday, Herbert Arthur, 1867-1941
Subjects: Natural history
Publisher: Westminster [Constable]
Contributing Library: Robarts – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

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rtof it for many centuries.Sa The Bishop of Winchester in1086 held the whole hundred, and itis stated to have always belonged tothe Church.* There were 50 hides in thetime of Edward the Confessor, butfrom that period until 1086 theChurch only paid geld for 40 hides.5 The descent of the hundred isidentical with that of the manor ofCrondall (q.v.). Although the Bishop of Win-chesters rights over Crondall hadbeen defined in 1283-4, the strugglebetween the bishop and the priorand convent as to the court to whichthe Hampshire tithings owed suit—to Blackheathfield in Farnham or toCrondall—only came to an end in 1398, when it was decreed that all the 1 The extent of the hundred as given in the Population Returns of 1831. * V.C.H. Hants, i, 465. See under histories of the various parishes. * Ibid. 505a. u Exch. Dep. Hil. 14 & 15 Chas. I, 13. See also the Hundred of Holdshot. 4 V.C.H. Hants, i, 465. 4 Ibid. 6 Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 276 ; Crondall Rec. (Hants Rec. Soc), 13-17. 4 1 1

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A HISTORY OF HAMPSHIRE free tenants of Crondall, with all the tithing-men of the towns, villages,and hamlets of the entire manor and lordship of Crondall, together withfour men of each tithing, were bound to pay two suits yearly at thebishops court at Blackheathfield.7 This shows that the men of Crondall were subjected to the hardship ofpaying suit at two hundred courts, for they not only presented at the tourn ofFarnham Blackheath, but also at the Crondall Hundred tourn.8 Since 1831the following parishes have been formed :—Cove, in 1838, from the parish ofYateley ; Crookham, in 1842, from Crondall parish; Ewshott, in 1886,from the parishes of Crondall and Crookham ; Fleet, in 1863, from theparishes of Crondall, Elvetham, and Yateley ; Hawley, in 1838, from Yateley ;and Minley, in 1871, from Yateley. ALDERSHOT Alreschate (xiii cent.) ; Alreshute, Alreshete (xivcent.) ; Aldershott, Haldershutt, Aldrisshott (xvicent.) ; Aldershot (xvii cent). Aldershot is situated 35 miles from London

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Birthplace home of Sir Robert Helpann the ballet dancer and choreographer at 79 Bay Road Mt Gambier.
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Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

Port Fairy. Doorway of the Wesleyan Methodist church built in 1855 in a Classical style. The land was donated by James Atkinson the holder of the original Belfast Special Survey. The wooden manse is 1899 and the School Hall is behind church is 1870.
Tenants Rights
Image by denisbin
Port Fairy/Belfast.
Like nearby Portland Port Fairy was settled by whites before New South Wales created a settlement district in that region near the SA border. Sealers and whalers had visited this bay from the early 1800s with voyages from Van Diemen’s Land or from America. Captain Wishart of the whaling ship called the Fairy named the bay Port Fairy in 1828 after he had sheltered here during a raging storm. Temporary whaling and sealing camps were set up here from around 1830, including camps by the Mills brothers of Launceston who began as sealers and then progressed to being whalers. The bay is situated at the mouth of the Moyne River adjacent to Griffiths Island, now a sanctuary for Shearwater or Muttonbirds or Puffinus tenuirostiris as they are officially known. John Griffiths had established a whaling station on the island in 1835. Permanent white settlement began at Port Fairy from 1843 when James Atkinson had a Special Survey undertaken by the NSW government. At £1 per acre he purchased 5,120 acres. Further inland near Koroit and Tower Hill William Rutledge also purchased 5,120 acres through a Special Survey. A condition of the Special Survey was the establishment of a town and encouragement of settlers. Atkinson, who was born in Ireland, named his town Belfast to attract poor Irish settlers. William Rutledge of Koroit was also an Irishman and he sponsored Irish immigrants to lease his lands. Rutledge established a wool and trading company in Port Fairy with his business partners. Atkinson also leased land to Irish immigrants to grow potatoes as they had back in Ireland.

Once Portland became an official settlement area of NSW in 1840 similar conditions had to apply to the Port Fairy district. Governor Gipps in Sydney declared the Portland Bay District open for pastoral leases in 1839 and Commissioner LaTrobe was put in charge of the Portland and Port Phillip Bay districts as pastoralists flooded in to take up lands. But it took three more years before Port Fairy became official with Atkinson’s Special Survey in 1843. Atkinson’s town was Belfast but the government port and jetty here was known as Port Fairy from around 1843. In fact the town of Belfast was only changed to Port Fairy by Act of Parliament in 1887. Once Atkinson purchased his land he leased some sections to Charles Mills of Launceston who became the first permanent white farmer and he also leased all town blocks in Belfast. It was not until 1887 that the Atkinson estate allowed the leased town blocks to be sold as freehold. Atkinson was not liked by the townspeople and it is for that reason that they petitioned the government to eradicate his town name of Belfast in 1887! (Despite the leasehold on all town blocks the town grew very quickly and by 1857 it had a population of 2,190.)

Charles Mills took up around 400 acres for £52 a year rent along the lagoon near the mouth of the Moyne River which he called Picanini Ponds. This occurred in 1844. He soon changed the name of his property to Woodbine. His fine two-storey residence called Woodbine was erected in 1847 once he had obtained a 31-year lease of the farm from Atkinson. He subleased some of his land to his brother-in-law, a ticket of leave man from Van Diemen’s Land, named James Glare. Charles Mill’s brother John Mills lived in Belfast at 40 Gipps Street. He captained whaling and later trading ships along the coast. Whaling finished in Port Fairy in 1848 the last year that a whale was caught near the town. Atkinson also leased the rest of his rural land to tenant farmers who only obtained freehold from the late 1870s onwards. But there was plenty more fertile land near Port Fairy. In 1852 the new Victorian government (Victoria was created as a new colony in 1851) resumed pastoral leases around Port Fairy and subdivided and sold 8,000 acres mainly in 100 or 200-acre farms. Most of those who took up the land were dairy farmers, wheat farmers or potato growers. The town of Belfast continued to grow and today it has over 50 heritage-listed buildings with many dating from the 1840s and 1850s. Although Atkinson only gave leasehold in Belfast he donated land for the Anglican and Catholic churches, the first school at the rear of the Anglican Church, the library and the meeting hall.

Buildings to look for in Port Fairy:
•Walk begins if you choose at 44 James St. Site of former Wesleyan Methodist Church (1855) in a distinctive Greek/Georgian style melange. Next door is the wooden parsonage 1899. The bluestone Sunday School was built 1870 and also used as a town school. This land donated by James Atkinson from his special survey.
•Walk back to the next intersection on the corner James/Bank Streets where you will see the Caledonian Inn (1844)- oldest licensed hotel in Victoria but now a motel; continue down Bank Street towards the sea.
•At the next corner of your left is Barkley St. Walk down here if you want and see the Anglican Church with its fine encircling stonewall. It opened 1856 replacing an earlier wattle and daub church built 1847.
•Next you will see the former Council Chambers with the clock in the pediment. Once also used as a Post Office. Almost next door is the Star of the West Hotel (1856) built for a black West Indian.
•Then turn right into Sackville St. Immediately on your left are the classical style old Lecture Hall (1889) and the Library (former Mechanics Institute 1865.) There are many fine buildings in this the main shopping strip.
•At the intersection with Cox St. are three old fine looking bank style buildings on each corner. The bank on the right in bluestone was the Australasian Bank erected in 1857, one of the earliest banks in Port Fairy. Seacombe House (1847) was built as the Stag Hotel. On the nearest corner is the former Post Office, 1881.
• Then turn left into Cox St and beyond the first street on your left is a former bank built in 1870. Now the Municipal offices. Next door is Emoh Cottage 1840, added to 1885, the former home of William Rutledge the owner of the Koroit Special Survey. The façade is grand but narrow. It is now a Youth Hostel.
•Continue towards the sea and turn right in Gipps St. First on your left is Captain John Mills’s cottage from 1850s at the rear of the later home from 1880s. Whilst here walk down to the waterfront to enjoy the Moyne River wharfs. Almost on the next corner is the Court House in bluestone from 1860.
•Now turn right into Campbell St but glance left and on the other corner is the former Merrijig Inn (1841), once the social and political centre of early Belfast.
•At the second street on your right up Campbell is Sackville St. Turn into Sackville St. and on your right is Motts Cottage built 1845, 1860 and 1890. Once home to two early sailors. The single storey front part is clearly the 1845 cottage. The two-storey part added to the rear was erected in 1860.
•On the next corner of Sackville/Cox Streets the walk ends. If you want to see the grand Presbyterian Church and manse go to 29-33 Albert St.( the main highway). It was built in 1854 to replace the 1843 Scots church. Romantic Talara (1855) is on Princes Highway which we saw earlier and the Catholic Church (1859).

Tower Hill.
The road into Koroit will allow us to look down in the crater of Tower Hill yet another of the volcanic features of Australia Felix. The crater is a maar crater believed to have been formed about 30,000 years ago. Maars are formed when hot lava comes into contact with cold ground water resulting in many explosions hurling rock, scoria and volcanic ash into the air. Most of the material falls around the rim of the crater creating layers of volcanic tuff – rock, scoria and stones – which create a broad, relatively flat volcanic crater. They are not associated with lava flows. Maar caters like Tower Hill are broad with an almost level crater floor as the magna or lava would have cooled as soon as it came into contact with cool ground water. Later activity in the maar crater led to several smaller volcanic cones (scoria cones) appearing in the crater floor. The soils are fertile and there was thick vegetation on Tower Hill but this was cleared by early settlers. The crater edges were denuded. But in 1892 this scenic area was declared as Victoria’s first National Park. It is now home to many emus, kangaroos, echidnas etc. Replanting of the crater slopes began in 1981 using a detailed painting by Eugene von Guerard in 1855 to determine which species were originally growing here! The crater itself is 4 kms long and 80 metres high. The Koroitgundidj people ran an information centre.

Image from page 265 of “Ontario Public School History of England : Authorized by the Minister of Education for Ontario for Use in Forms IV and V of the Public Schools” (1912)

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Image from page 265 of “Ontario Public School History of England : Authorized by the Minister of Education for Ontario for Use in Forms IV and V of the Public Schools” (1912)
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Identifier: onpubhisteng00toro
Title: Ontario Public School History of England : Authorized by the Minister of Education for Ontario for Use in Forms IV and V of the Public Schools
Year: 1912 (1910s)
Authors:
Subjects:
Publisher: Toronto : The MacMillan Company of Canada
Contributing Library: The University of Western Ontario, Western Archives
Digitizing Sponsor: Ontario Council of University Libraries and Member Libraries

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or right tovote, was extended to tenants in counties paying £50 a year,and to tenants in towns paying £10 a year. Before theReform Bill, the political power rested wholly with thenobility, clergy, and land-owners; after the Reform Bill, thegreat middle class, including tenant-farmers, professionalmen, skilled artisans, and tradesmen, were given a share inthe government of the country. 252. Social reforms.—During thelatter part of the eighteenth cen-tury, the slave trade began to/ / j^ I ■aSI f^. ^5k receive attention. Its horrors were -5 ? ^fcA, i »^ brought vividly before the people – ~ . in a book written by Thomas Clarkson, in which it was pointedout that more than fifty thousandMl^ml^^y^^9w ^i^g^o^^ were seized in Africa everyS mhrn /fflR^ year, and carried off to be soldin America. They were crowdedinto ships, chained and packedaway on shelves like merchandise.William Wilberforce ^ ^-^^i ^^ prohibit the slave trade was passed three times by the House of Commons, but each

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1807-331 THE HOUSE OF HANOVER 265 time it was rejected by the House of Lords. Finally, in1807, an Act was passed, but it did not set free those whowere already slaves; it merely made the slave trade illegalin British dominions. But men like William Wilberforce,Zachary Macaulay and others, who had devoted their livesto the freeing of slaves, kept up the agitation, and in 1833an Act was passed through both Houses of Parliament settingfree all slaves under the British flag. Twenty millionpounds was granted as compensation to the planters, andthe blot of slavery disappeared from the British Empire. One of the evils resulting from the rapid developing of themanufacturing industries was the employment of women andchildren in the mines and factories. They were frequently,in the mines, forced to do work fit only for strong men.Children of six were habitually employed, and their hours oflabour were fourteen to sixteen daily. In the factories thework was not so hard, but the hours were equally

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a quick diagram of the space
Tenants Rights
Image by shawnporter
– the space is about 5300 square feet in total
– the entrance is off the page, to the right
– on the right where it says "recp", that is the reception area
– there are 10 small offices along the east (up) wall, each for 1 to 2 people – each has interior and exterior windows
– there are two big rooms in the back (left), one is about 20×20 and the other is about 13×30
– there are two open areas, one towards the front, about 13×13 and one towards the back, about 25×40 (with a divot)
– there are five medium offices along the west (bottom) wall, each for 1 to 3 people… they’re slightly smaller than Betsy’s current office
– there is a kitchenette with a sink, plenty of counter space, and room for a refrigerator
– there is one interior (no windows) room, about 13×13
– the views out the windows are nothing to write home about but natural light is natural light
– one of the small offices in the "server room", with it’s own temperature controls and all the wiring ending up there
– I think there are four temperature control zones
– small offices
– medium offices
– back conference rooms
– middle of the building
– there are bathrooms outside our space; the men’s room was in good shape and had a single stall and urinal
– the space is on the third floor and takes up roughly 2/3 of the floor; the remainder of the floor is empty
– parking looks ample and is lighted; there is building security until 9 or 10 PM
– the entrance to the building is secured ("fob") in addition to a door to this space; there is currently only one other tenant in the building

Raymond and Barbara Lawrence’s children stand next to the hog pen, August 1982
Tenants Rights
Image by Kheel Center, Cornell University Library
Title: Raymond and Barbara Lawrence’s children stand next to the hog pen, August 1982

Date: 1982

Photographer: Louise Boyle

Photo ID: 5859pb2f42kc800g

Collection: Louise Boyle. Southern Tenant Farmers Union Photographs, 1937 and 1982

Repository: The Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives in the ILR School at Cornell University is the Catherwood Library unit that collects, preserves, and makes accessible special collections documenting the history of the workplace and labor relations. www.ilr.cornell.edu/library/kheel

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Copyright: The copyright status of this image is unknown. It may also be subject to third party rights of privacy or publicity. Images are being made available for purposes of private study, scholarship, and research. The Kheel Center would like to learn more about this image and hear from any copyright owners who are not properly identified so that we may make the necessary corrections.

Tags: Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives,Cornell University Library,Children, Buildings, Tools

Image from page 30 of “Through the magic door” (1920)

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Image from page 30 of “Through the magic door” (1920)
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Identifier: throughmagicdoor00doyluoft
Title: Through the magic door
Year: 1920 (1920s)
Authors: Doyle, Arthur Conan, Sir, 1859-1930
Subjects: Books and reading
Publisher: London Murray
Contributing Library: Robarts – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

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that would not i4 THROUGH THE MAGIC DOOR go. If he rambled into any fashionablecoffee-house, he became a mark for theinsolent derision of fops, and the gravewaggery of Templars. Enraged and morti-fied, he soon returned to his mansion, andthere, in the homage of his tenants and theconversation of his boon companions, foundconsolation for the vexations and humiliationswhich he had undergone. There he wasonce more a great man, and saw nothingabove himself except when at the assizes hetook his seat on the bench near the Judge, orwhen at the muster of the militia he salutedthe Lord Lieutenant. On the whole, I should put this detachedchapter of description at the very head of hisEssays, though it happens to occur in anothervolume. The History as a whole does not, asit seems to me, reach the same level as theshorter articles. One cannot but feel that itis a brilliant piece of special pleading from afervid Whig, and that there must be more tobe said for the other side than is there set forth.

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THOMAS BABIXGTON, BARON MACALI.AV. From the /ninthly by Sir Francis Grant, /./…!. THROUGH THE MAGIC DOOR 15 Some of the Essays are tinged also, no doubt,by his own political and religious limitations.The best are those which get right awayinto the broad fields of literature and philo-sophy. Johnson, Walpole, Madame DArblay,Addison, and the two great Indian ones, Cliveand Warren Hastings, are my own favourites.Frederick the Great, too, must surely standin the first rank. Only one would I wish toeliminate. It is the diabolically clever criti-cism upon Montgomery. One would havewished to think that Macaulays heart wastoo kind, and his soul too gentle, to pen sobitter an attack. Bad work will sink of itsown weight. It is not necessary to sousethe author as well. One would think morehighly of the man if he had not done thatsavage bit of work. I dont know why talking of Macaulayalways makes me think of Scott, whose books,in a faded, olive-backed line, have a shelf,you see, of their own. P

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Image taken from page 299 of ‘The Wilderness and its Tenants: a series of geographical and other essays illustrative of life in a wild country, etc’
Tenants Rights
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Title: "The Wilderness and its Tenants: a series of geographical and other essays illustrative of life in a wild country, etc"
Author: MADDEN, John – Traveller
Shelfmark: "British Library HMNTS 10006.f.19."
Volume: 03
Page: 299
Place of Publishing: London
Date of Publishing: 1897
Publisher: Simpkin & Marshall
Issuance: monographic
Identifier: 002335513

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The New Tenants
Tenants Rights
Image by BevKnits
Blue Birds moving in

This bird house was on the tree right behind this pole that you can see in this picture but the tree broke in half :o(

It was on the ground in a previous picture this spring with a ladybug on it. Click here to see that picture: Bird House from Cedar

I had this pole installed last fall and just the other day I asked my hubby to please re-install the bird house. I thought maybe the birds wouldn’t use it this year but I still wanted to get it back up.

He barely left the area after re-installing it and the birds were fighting over who gets the house!!

Pretty birds.

Image from page 671 of “Battles and leaders of the Civil War : being for the most part contributions by Union and Confederate officers” (1887)

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Image from page 671 of “Battles and leaders of the Civil War : being for the most part contributions by Union and Confederate officers” (1887)
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Identifier: battlesleadersof02john
Title: Battles and leaders of the Civil War : being for the most part contributions by Union and Confederate officers
Year: 1887 (1880s)
Authors: Johnson, Robert Underwood, 1853-1937 Buel, Clarence Clough, 1850-1933 Century Company
Subjects: Command of troops
Publisher: New York : Century Co.
Contributing Library: Lincoln Financial Foundation Collection
Digitizing Sponsor: The Institute of Museum and Library Services through an Indiana State Library LSTA Grant

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assist-ance, and early in the afternoon Irwin and Brooks, of Smiths, advanced to thecharge and relieved Greenes division and part of Frenchs, holding the linefrom Bloody Lane by the Clipp, Roulette, and Mumma houses to the EastWood and the ridge in front. Here Smith and Slocum remained till Leeretreated, Smiths division repelling a sharp attack. French and Richard-sons battle may be considered as ended at 1 or 2 oclock. It seems to me very clear that about 10 oclock in the morning was thegreat crisis in this battle. The sudden and complete rout of Sedgwicksdivision was not easily accounted for, and with McClellans theory of theenormous superiority of Lees numbers, it looked as if the Confederate gen-eral had massed overwhelming forces on our right. Sumners notion thatHookers corps was utterly dispersed was naturally accepted, and McClellanlimited his hopes to holding on at the East Wood and the Poffenberger hillwhere Sedgwicks batteries were massed and supported by the troops that had

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CHARGE OF IRWINS BRIGADE (SMITHS DIVISION) AT THE DUNKER CHURCH. FROM A SKETCn MADE AT THE TIME. General Wm. F. Smith, commanding the Second Di-vision of Franklins corps, went to the assistance ofFrench. On setting into position, for the most part tothe right of French, General Smith, in his report, says : Finding that the enemy were advancing, I ordered for-ward the Third Brigade (Colonel Irwins), who, passingthrough the regular battery then commanded by Lieu- tenant Thomas (Fourth Artillery), charged upon theenemy and drove them gallantly until abreast the littlechurch at the point of woods, the possession of whichhad been so fiercely contested. At this point a severeflank Are from the woods was received. The brigaderallied behind the crest of a slope, and remained in anadvanced position until the next day.—Editors. THE BATTLE OF ANTIETAM. 647

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A young, black girl pumping water at Delta Cooperative.
Tenants Rights
Image by Kheel Center, Cornell University Library
Title: A young, black girl pumping water at Delta Cooperative.

Date: 1937

Photographer: Louise Boyle

Photo ID: 5859pb2f3fp800g

Collection: Louise Boyle. Southern Tenant Farmers Union Photographs, 1937 and 1982

Repository: The Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives in the ILR School at Cornell University is the Catherwood Library unit that collects, preserves, and makes accessible special collections documenting the history of the workplace and labor relations. www.ilr.cornell.edu/library/kheel

Notes:

Copyright: The copyright status of this image is unknown. It may also be subject to third party rights of privacy or publicity. Images are being made available for purposes of private study, scholarship, and research. The Kheel Center would like to learn more about this image and hear from any copyright owners who are not properly identified so that we may make the necessary corrections.

Tags: Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives,Cornell University Library,African Americans, Children, Living Conditions,

James B. Hunter Human Rights Award Ceremony
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Image by cliff1066™
Arlington Coalition Against “Secure Communities Program:” The coalition was organized in June 2010 by a group of well-established community organizations concerned with the negative impact that the federal Secure Communities Program would have on Arlington. The organizations included, among others: Tenants and Workers United; St. Charles Borromeo Catholic Church; Our Lady Queen of Peace Catholic Church; the Virginia Coalition of Latino Organizations; the Legal Aid Justice Center, LiUNA, and the UUCA Global Justice Committee. The coalition successfully lobbied the Arlington County Board to adopt a resolution asking that Arlington be allowed to withdraw from the Department of Homeland Security’s program.

Image from page 50 of “The amateur’s greenhouse and conservatory : a handy guide to the construction and management of planthouses, and the selection, cultivation, and improvement of ornamental greenhouse and conservatory plants” (1873)

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Image from page 50 of “The amateur’s greenhouse and conservatory : a handy guide to the construction and management of planthouses, and the selection, cultivation, and improvement of ornamental greenhouse and conservatory plants” (1873)
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Identifier: amateursgreenhou00hibb
Title: The amateur’s greenhouse and conservatory : a handy guide to the construction and management of planthouses, and the selection, cultivation, and improvement of ornamental greenhouse and conservatory plants
Year: 1873 (1870s)
Authors: Hibberd, Shirley, 1825-1890
Subjects: Greenhouses Greenhouse plants Gardening
Publisher: London : Groombridge and Sons
Contributing Library: University of Pittsburgh Library System
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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PAXTONIAN PLANT-HOUSE. By this time some prudent reader will be asking if thequestion of tenant right in plant-houses is likely to engageour attention ? Well, that is the very question we intend toillustrate in the next examples. The prudent reader need not,of course, be informed that, according to the law of the land,plant-houses, from the moment of their fixture in the soil, be-come the property of the freeholder. But it may be lessgenerally known ithat the best house ever built is scarcely AND fONSERTATOHT. 45 worth the trouble of removal after a few years have elapsed,

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46 THE AMATEUE S GREEKHOUSE unless it was intended from the first to be removable at thewill of the owner. There are several kinds of portable houses now provided byenterprising manufacturers, and amongst many good ones thatknown as the Pastonian, the invention of Sir JosephPaxton, is, perhaps, the best. Leaving the reader to selectfor himself the ready-made article, we proceed to show howportable houses may be constructed by village carpenters andhandy amateurs. The house represented pp. 45, 46, 47 was built by Messrs.Walker & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne, for our correspondent, Mr.Lant, of Cottonstone, Barnard Castle. The ground plan and sec-tion will explain the whole construction. The house is twelvefeet long and eight feet wide; the side lights five feet high from

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Image from page 205 of “Bowen’s picture of Boston, or the citizens and stranger’s guide to the metropolis of Massachusetts, and its environs. To which is affixed the Annals of Boston” (1838)
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Identifier: bowenspictureofb1838bowe
Title: Bowen’s picture of Boston, or the citizens and stranger’s guide to the metropolis of Massachusetts, and its environs. To which is affixed the Annals of Boston
Year: 1838 (1830s)
Authors: Bowen, Abel, 1790-1850
Subjects:
Publisher: Boston, Otis, Broaders and company
Contributing Library: Wellesley College Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

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as family burial places, at suita-ble distances on the sides of the avenues and paths. Theperpetual right of enclosing and of using these lots, as placesof sepulture, is conveyed to the purchasers of them, by theHorticultural Society. About two hundred of these lots havebeen sold at each, and an additional sum received in pre-miums for the right of choice. A substantial fence, sevenfeet high, is carried round the whole tract, having for its prin-cipal entrance a gateway, finished in the Egyptian style,twentyfive feet high, and including in its plan two apartmentsfor the use of the porter and other attendants. A public lotis inclosed, on one of the avenues, in which single intermentsare permitted on the payment of for each. The price ofa lot, with the liberty to use one foot in width on each boun-dary, for the erection of a wall or fence, is . A number of 180 PICTURE OF BOSTON. elegant monuments of marble and granite are erected, andothers are in progress. Among which is one

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TOHANNAH ADAMS, HISTORIAN OF THE JEWS AND REVIEWER OF THE CHRISTIAN SECTS, THIS MONUMENT IS ERECTED BY HER FEMALE FRIENDS. FIRST TENANT OF MOUNT AUBURN. She Died Dec. 15, 1831. AGED 76. On entering through the gateway, the first object that pre-sents itself in passing up Central Avenue, is the PICTURE OF BOSTON. 181 TOMB OF

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